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1838- Oberlin admite mujeres - Historia

1838- Oberlin admite mujeres - Historia


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1838- Oberlin admite mujeres

Promoción de 1889

Con la clase de primer año de 1838, Oberlin College admitió a sus primeras cuatro mujeres. La universidad se enorgullecía de su apertura, habiendo sido la primera escuela en admitir negros, también fue la primera universidad del país en admitir mujeres.


En 1837, el Oberlin College admitió a las primeras mujeres en su escuela. El cofundador de las universidades, John Jay Shiperd, fue la fuerza impulsora detrás de la admisión de mujeres. Shiperd creyó en sus palabras: en elevar el carácter femenino. Las primeras cuatro mujeres admitidas en Oberlin fueron: Mary Kellogg, Mary Caroline Rudd, Mary Hosford y Elizabeth Prall. Las mujeres se graduaron con títulos AB. Kellogg se fue antes de que pudiera graduarse debido a su situación financiera. Sin embargo, regresó más tarde para terminar su carrera.

La reputación de Oberlin como una escuela extremadamente progresista mejoró en 1844, solo unos años después, cuando graduó a su primer estudiante afroamericano.


Una historia de las mujeres en la educación superior

En 1636, solo unos pocos años después de que los colonos británicos establecieran sus primeras colonias permanentes en la costa de América del Norte, Harvard College comenzó a educar a los estudiantes. Durante más de 300 años, Harvard admitió solo a hombres blancos de familias prominentes, es decir, hasta el siglo XIX, cuando las mujeres cambiaron el rumbo en su lucha por un lugar en las universidades estadounidenses.

Antes, las universidades rara vez admitían mujeres. En estos días, sin embargo, casi todos los colegios y universidades inscriben a mujeres (a excepción de un pequeño puñado de escuelas exclusivas para hombres). El proceso de hacer que la educación superior sea mixta no fue fácil. Generaciones de mujeres enfrentaron el rechazo de sus compañeros de clase, administradores y otros que enmarcaron su oposición como una defensa de la tradición.

Pero en la década de 1980, las mujeres constituían la mayoría de los estudiantes universitarios, un puesto que continúan ocupando hoy. Entonces, ¿cómo llegaron las mujeres a la educación superior? Con mucho tiempo y con mucha resiliencia.


Blog de Ashleyzurfluh & # 039s

1839 Mississippi aprueba la Ley de propiedad de mujeres casadas y # 8217.

1840 A Lucretia Mott se le niega un asiento en la Conferencia Mundial contra la Esclavitud en Londres debido a su género.
Mott & # 8217s cuenta de su viaje a Gran Bretaña se reimprime como esclavitud y & # 8220Woman Question & # 8221

1841 Catharine Beecher y # 8217s Tratado de economía doméstica Esta publicado.
Catharine Beecher (1800-1878),

1841 Dorothea Dix comienza su cruzada por el tratamiento humano de los enfermos mentales.

1846 Seis mujeres exigen igualdad de derechos en una petición a la convención constitucional de Nueva York.

1847 Lucy Stone se gradúa de Oberlin College. Stone se niega a escribir una dirección de graduación porque no se le permitiría leerla ella misma.

1848 Elizabeth Ellet y # 8217s Las mujeres de la revolución americana Esta publicado.
Ellet hace preguntas sobre las mujeres en la Guerra Revolucionaria.

1848 Ellen Craft escapa de la esclavitud haciéndose pasar por un hombre blanco.

1848 La primera convención de derechos de la mujer # 8217 en los Estados Unidos se lleva a cabo en Seneca Falls, Nueva York.

1848 Maria Mitchell es elegida miembro de la Academia Estadounidense de Artes y Ciencias.

1849 Elizabeth Blackwell se convierte en la primera mujer en recibir el título de M.D.

1850 El Female Medical College of Pennsylvania se convierte en la primera escuela de medicina para mujeres. La institución pasará a llamarse Woman & # 8217s Medical College of Pennsylvania en 1867.

1850 Ley de esclavos fugitivos

1850 Harriet Tubman hace su primer viaje al sur como conductora en el ferrocarril subterráneo.

1852 Elizabeth Cady Stanton y Susan B. Anthony se vuelven activas en la Sociedad de Templanza del Estado de Nueva York para Mujeres.

1852 La historiadora Carla Peterson interpreta los discursos de Sojourner Truth (1852) y Frances Watkins Harper.

1854 Ley de Kansas-Nebraska

1859 Harriet Wilson y # 8217s Nuestra noche o bocetos de la vida de un negro libre Esta publicado.

1859 Martha J. Coston patenta un destello de señal nocturna en el nombre de su esposo.

1859 La abolicionista Sarah Parker Remond comienza una gira de conferencias de dos años que incluirá paradas en Escocia, Irlanda, Inglaterra y Francia.

1861 Elizabeth Keckley se convierte en la modista de Mary Todd Lincoln.

1861 Rose O & # 8217Neal Greenhow, un espía confederado, está bajo arresto domiciliario.

1862 La Dra. Marie Elizabeth Zakrzewska abre el Hospital para Mujeres y Niños de Nueva Inglaterra.

1862 Ley de Homestead

1862 Julia Ward Howe escribe el & # 8220 Himno de batalla de la República & # 8221.

1864 La masacre de Sand Creek deja al menos 150 cheyennes y arapahos muertos.

1865 Vassar College, constituido en 1861, da la bienvenida a su primer grupo de estudiantes mujeres.

1869 Elizabeth Cady Stanton y Susan B. Anthony fundaron la Asociación Nacional de Sufragio Femenino (NWSA), y Lucy Stone ayuda a fundar la Asociación Estadounidense de Sufragio Femenino, que es más moderada.

1872 Susan B. Anthony es arrestada y llevada a juicio por intentar votar en las elecciones presidenciales.
El Proyecto de Documentos de Stanton y Anthony en línea incluye extractos de las cartas de Anthony & # 8217 en Snapshot Stories: Anthony & # 8217s Illegal Vote.

1872 Victoria Woodhull está nominada como candidata presidencial por el Partido por la Igualdad de Derechos.

1872 Winema Riddle trabaja por la paz durante la Guerra de Modoc.

1873 Ellen Swallow Richards se convierte en la primera mujer graduada del MIT.

1874 Se funda la Woman & # 8217s Christian Temperance Union.

1876 La escultora Edmonia Lewis completa La muerte de cleopatra.

1876 Lydia E. Pinkham registra la etiqueta y la marca comercial de Lydia E. Pinkham & # 8217s Vegetable Compound.

1877 Establecimiento del sindicato de mujeres en la educación y la industria

1879 Belva Lockwood se convierte en la primera mujer admitida en el colegio de abogados de la Corte Suprema.

1879 Frances Willard es elegida presidenta de la Unión de Mujeres Cristianas por la Templanza.

1879 Mary Baker Eddy funda la Primera Iglesia Científica de Cristo.

1881 Alice Freeman Palmer se convierte en presidenta de Wellesley College.

1881 El Seminario Bautista Femenino de Atlanta es fundado por Sophia B. Packard y Harriet E. Giles.

1881 Alice Fletcher comienza un viaje de campamento de seis semanas en la Reserva Sioux en el Territorio de Dakota.

1881 Clara Barton funda la Cruz Roja Americana.

1882 La Ley de Exclusión China restringe la inmigración china a los Estados Unidos.

1882 Helen Hunt Jackson & # 8217s Un siglo de deshonra detalla el maltrato a los nativos americanos por parte del gobierno de los Estados Unidos.

1884 M. Carey Thomas se convierte en decano de Bryn Mawr College.

1885 La francotiradora Annie Oakley comienza a viajar con & # 8220Buffalo Bill & # 8221 Cody & # 8217s Wild West Show.

1886 Las mujeres mormonas protestan contra el proyecto de ley pendiente de Edmunds-Tucker.

1887 Anne Sullivan comienza a enseñar a Helen Keller.

1887 La Ley de Variedad de Dawes subdivide las reservas indias en parcelas de tierra individuales.

1887 Susanna Salter es elegida alcaldesa de Argonia, Kansas, convirtiéndose así en la primera alcaldesa del país.

1889 Jane Addams y Ellen Gates Starr fundaron Hull House en Chicago.

1889 Nellie Bly viaja alrededor del mundo en 72 días.

1889 Susan La Flesche Picotte se convierte en la primera médica nativa americana.

1890 La Federación General de Clubes de Mujeres y # 8217s está organizada por Jane Croly.

1890 Se forma la Asociación Nacional Estadounidense del Sufragio de la Mujer.

1891 Lili & # 8217uokalani se convierte en reina de Hawaii.

1892
Elizabeth Cady Stanton entrega su discurso & # 8220Solitude of Self & # 8221 al Comité Judicial del Congreso.

1892 Ellis Island abre el 1 de enero. Annie Moore, de quince años, es la primera inmigrante que pasa por Ellis Island.

1892 La donación de Mary Elizabeth Garrett de $ 306,977 permite que la escuela de medicina de la Universidad Johns Hopkins abra sus puertas el año siguiente.

1892 Senda Berenson presenta las primeras reglas para el baloncesto femenino & # 8217s ..

1895 Lillian Wald abre Henry Street Settlement en la ciudad de Nueva York.
Wald aparece en la exhibición en línea de Mujeres Judías & # 8217s Archive & # 8220Women of Valor. & # 8221

1896 Amy Beach & # 8217s & # 8220Gaelic & # 8221 Sinfonía

1896 Fannie Farmer & # 8217s Libro de cocina de la escuela de cocina de Boston Esta publicado.

1896 Comienza la Fiebre del Oro de Klondike.

1896 El fallo de Plessy v. Ferguson permite & # 8220 adaptaciones iguales pero separadas para las razas blanca y de color & # 8221.

1898 Charlotte Perkins Gilman y # 8217s Mujeres y Economía Esta publicado.

1898 Guerra hispano Americana.

1899 Carrie Nation comienza su cruzada militante contra las tabernas.

1899 Florence Kelley se convierte en directora de la Liga Nacional de Consumidores.

1899 Frances Benjamin Johnston fotografía a estudiantes del Instituto Hampton en Hampton, Virginia.

1900 Las misioneras asociadas con Oberlin College se encuentran entre las asesinadas durante la Rebelión de los Bóxers en China.

1902Charlotte Hawkins Brown funda el Palmer Memorial Institute en Sedalia, Carolina del Norte.

1902 Elizabeth Cady Stanton muere.

1902 Mary Harris & # 8220Mother & # 8221 Jones organiza West Virginia para la gran huelga de carbón de antracita de 1902.

1903 Maggie Lena Walker se convierte en presidenta del Saint Luke Penny Savings Bank en Richmond, Virginia.

1904 Helen Keller se gradúa de Radcliffe College.

1904 Mary McLeod Bethune funda la Escuela Normal e Industrial de Daytona para Niñas Negras, ahora Bethune-Cookman College.

1904 Se forma el Comité Nacional de Trabajo Infantil.

1905 Mary Colter diseña la casa Hopi

1906 Susan B. Anthony muere.

1907 Harriot Stanton Blatch y la Liga por la Igualdad de Mujeres Autosuficientes.

1907 Marian y Edward MacDowell fundaron MacDowell Colony, un retiro de artistas & # 8217.

1908 Fotografías de Lewis Hine para el Comité Nacional de Trabajo Infantil, 1908 & # 8211 1912.

1909 El Sindicato Internacional de Trabajadoras de la Confección de Mujeres (ILGWU) organiza una huelga de 20.000 fabricantes de camiseros de la ciudad de Nueva York.

1910 Trabajadores de la confección de Chicago y huelga # 8217.

1910 Madam C.J. Walker abre una fábrica y una escuela de belleza en Indianápolis.

1911 Virginia Gildersleeve se convierte en decana de Barnard College.
Rosalind Rosenberg explora la larga carrera de Gildersleeve & # 8217 en Barnard en Virginia Gildersleeve: Opening the Gates, parte de la serie Living Legacies de la Universidad de Columbia.

1912 La huelga del pan y las rosas comienza en Lawrence, Massachusetts.

1912 Harriet Monroe funda Poesía, el primer periódico en los Estados Unidos dedicado exclusivamente al verso.

1912 Juliette Gordon Low (1860-1927) funda las Girl Scouts of America.

1912 Oregon & # 8217s Proclamación de Sufragio Igualitario

1912 Se crea formalmente U.S. Children & # 8217s Bureau.]

1913 Mary Harris & # 8220Mother & # 8221 Jones es arrestada después de liderar una protesta por las condiciones en las minas de West Virginia.

1913 El desfile por el sufragio femenino en Washington, D.C. atrae a más de 5000 manifestantes.

1914 Masacre de Ludlow (14 de abril)

1914 Margaret Sanger publica el primer número de La mujer rebelde.

1914 Nina Allender se convierte en la dibujante oficial del Partido Nacional de la Mujer.


Hoy en la historia: nacido el 30 de octubre

John Adams, segundo presidente de los Estados Unidos que ayudó a redactar la Declaración de Independencia y el Tratado de París, poniendo fin a la Revolución Americana.

Richard Sheridan, dramaturgo (Los rivales, La escuela del escándalo).

Alfred Sisley, pintor de paisajes.

Gertrude Atherton, novelista.

Paul Valéry, poeta y ensayista.

William F. "Bull" Halsey, Jr., almirante estadounidense que jugó un papel fundamental en la derrota de Japón durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La rendición japonesa se firmó en su buque insignia, el USS Misuri.

Ezra Pound, poeta estadounidense que promovió el imaginismo, un movimiento poético que enfatiza la frase libre en lugar de la métrica forzada. Fue encarcelado por sus transmisiones de radio pro fascistas.

Ruth Gordon, actriz ganadora de un Oscar, un Emmy y un Globo de Oro (Harold y Maude, El bebé de Rosemary).

Hermann Fegelein, general de las SS de la Segunda Guerra Mundial que era cuñado de Eva Braun, la amante de Adolf Hitler.

Fred W. Friendly, presidente de CBS News y cocreador de la serie documental Vealo Ahora, el programa en gran parte acreditado por derribar al senador Joe McCarthy.

Clifford "Brpwnie" Brown, trompetista y compositor de jazz influyente ("Joy Spring", "Daahoud").

Dick Vermeil, entrenador en jefe de los Philadelphia Eagles (1976-1982) de la National Football League, St. Louis Rams (1997-1999) y Kansas City Chiefs (2001-2005).

Grace Slick, cantante, compositora y cantante principal de las bandas The Great Society, Jefferson Airplane, Jefferson Starship y Starship.

Henry Winkler, actor, director, productor saltó a la fama como "The Fonz" en Días felices Serie de televisión, papel que le valió dos veces un Globo de Oro al Mejor Actor en una Serie de Televisión Musical o Comedia.

Tory Belleci, cineasta y modelista conocido por su trabajo en la Cazadores de mitos La serie de televisión también trabajó en dos Guerra de las Galaxias Película (s.


Historia de Oberlin Preguntas frecuentes y cronología

Vea una cronología de los principales eventos en la historia de Oberlin, compilada por el Oberlin Heritage Center.

¿De dónde viene el nombre "Oberlin"?

Oberlin recibió su nombre de John Frederic Oberlin (1740-1826), un ministro y reformador social de la región francesa de Alsacia. Estaba apasionadamente comprometido con la educación universal e impuso a su parroquia un impuesto universal para apoyar la educación pública gratuita. Entre otras cosas, también mejoró la infraestructura de transporte existente y abogó por la formación empresarial y profesional para hombres y mujeres. Trabajó para mejorar el conocimiento agrícola, importando nuevas razas de ganado y experimentando en horticultura e injertando variedades "estándar" de árboles frutales en plantas autóctonas locales. Alentó a los residentes de la aldea a recibir capacitación en medicina y partería, promovió la buena higiene y el saneamiento, incluida la recolección de basura y, cuando estuvo disponible, hizo que la vacuna contra la viruela fuera obligatoria para los residentes de su parroquia.

¿Qué fue primero, la ciudad o la universidad?

Ambos fueron fundados al mismo tiempo. Era el año 1833. Los primeros residentes de Oberlin y firmantes del Pacto de Oberlin querían fundar un asentamiento perfeccionista cristiano lejos del mundo pecaminoso. Parte de su misión incluía la educación, que consideraban una parte necesaria para una vida adecuada. El Conservatorio de Música se estableció "oficialmente" en 1865 antes de eso, era parte del Colegio.

¿Fue Oberlin la primera universidad mixta?

Efectivamente, sí. Se invitó a las mujeres a inscribirse cuando se fundó la universidad, aunque solo se les permitió postularse a dos de los cuatro departamentos de la universidad (fueron excluidas de la universidad completa y del seminario hasta 1837). Las primeras tres mujeres y ndash Mary Hosford (más tarde Fisher), Elizabeth Smith Prall (más tarde Russell) y Mary Caroline Rudd (más tarde Allen) y ndash que obtuvieron y recibieron su licenciatura en los Estados Unidos las obtuvieron de Oberlin College en 1841. Una cuarta mujer comenzó su trabajo hacia la BA con estas tres mujeres, pero terminó sus estudios antes de tiempo. Colectivamente, sin embargo, estas mujeres a veces se conocen como "los Cuatro de Oberlin".

¿Fue Oberlin la primera universidad en admitir estudiantes afroamericanos?

De hecho, no lo fue. Oberlin era la primera universidad en tener una política de no discriminar a los afroamericanos y admisiones ciegas a la raza, por así decirlo, a partir de 1835. También fue la primera universidad en otorgar un título a una mujer afroamericana: Mary Jane Patterson, OC 1862.

¿Oberlin College era una escuela afiliada a la iglesia?

Oberlin College tuvo un seminario teológico hasta 1964 que no era confesional.

¿Había túneles subterráneos y pasadizos secretos en Oberlin para esclavos fugitivos?

Probablemente no. El Ferrocarril Subterráneo era "subterráneo" en el sentido de "secreto" u "oculto", no literalmente subterráneo en la mayoría de los casos. Aunque a veces los túneles formaban parte del ferrocarril subterráneo, todavía no se han documentado túneles históricos en Oberlin. El Ferrocarril Subterráneo no era tanto una cosa física como una red en constante cambio de buscadores de libertad individuales ayudados por abolicionistas.

¿Dónde se escondieron los esclavos fugitivos en su huida hacia la libertad?

Muchos afroamericanos, incluidos algunos que habían escapado de la esclavitud, vivían abiertamente en la comunidad, especialmente antes de la promulgación de la Ley de esclavos fugitivos. Dado que toda la ciudad era conocida como un lugar seguro y un semillero del movimiento abolicionista, es poco probable que muchas casas tuvieran escondites secretos. La mayoría de las historias involucran a personas que se esconden en cuartos libres, graneros, dentro de los carros, en el bosque o que no se esconden en absoluto. No sobreviven muchas casas de la época anterior a la Guerra Civil y muchas de ellas han sufrido grandes modificaciones. Por supuesto, cualquier casa en la ciudad construida antes de la Guerra Civil podría haber sido parte del Ferrocarril Subterráneo.

Oberlin fue el hogar de muchos abolicionistas ardientes, tanto afroamericanos como caucásicos, y muchos de ellos participaron activamente en el Ferrocarril Subterráneo de diversas maneras. John Mercer Langston, los hermanos Evans y James Monroe se encontraban entre los abolicionistas más destacados de la comunidad y los rsquos.

Se anima a los visitantes a consultar nuestro Calendario de eventos para participar en una Caminata histórica de Freedom & rsquos Friends y escuchar historias sobre la participación de Oberlin & rsquos en el ferrocarril subterráneo.

Un excelente manual ilustrado del ferrocarril subterráneo producido por el Servicio de Parques Nacionales está disponible para la venta en nuestra Tienda del Museo y en la tienda en línea.

¿Estaba la estación 99 de Oberlin en el ferrocarril subterráneo?

No. La investigación actual sugiere fuertemente que este término se empezó a usar a mediados del siglo XX. Es engañoso. El ferrocarril subterráneo no era una ruta establecida con paradas fijas, era una red en constante cambio. Las casas seguras, los participantes y los caminos siempre cambiaban para evitar sospechas. Muy pocas personas recorrieron exactamente el mismo camino y, por lo tanto, las estaciones y las casas seguras no estaban numeradas. Aunque toda la comunidad de Oberlin fue sin duda un refugio popular para muchos hombres, mujeres y niños que viajaban al norte hacia la libertad, no se han encontrado registros históricos que llamen a Oberlin & ldquoStation 99 & rdquo.

¿Era Oberlin una ciudad seca?

Si. Oberlin tiene una fuerte tradición de templanza, comenzando con sus fundadores en 1833. La Anti-Saloon League fue fundada en Oberlin en 1893 y luego se mudó a Westerville. A mediados de la década de 1900, los directorios de la ciudad ocasionalmente enumeran tabernas, que quizás vendían bebidas con menor contenido de alcohol, como cerveza al 3,2%. Solo a partir de las décadas de 1980 y 1990, algunos restaurantes tenían licencia para servir licores fuertes.

¿Se inventó el aluminio en Oberlin?

No exactamente. El aluminio ha sido reconocido como metal durante varios siglos. Antes de 1886, sin embargo, su producción era extremadamente cara. Charles Martin Hall, un residente de Oberlin y ex alumno de OC, inventó una manera económica y (¡relativamente fácil!) De producir aluminio y el mismo proceso que usamos hoy. Hall fundó ALCOA (The Aluminum Company of America), produjo una gran cantidad de aluminio y ganó una gran fortuna.

¿Qué es ese gran monumento de piedra en Tappan Square?

Oberlin College originalmente incluía un seminario teológico. Muchos de los graduados del Seminario trabajaron como misioneros en todas las regiones del mundo. Un "punto caliente" para las misiones entrenadas por Oberlin fue China, particularmente la provincia de Shansi (Shanxi) de China. En 1899, un grupo de nacionalistas chinos (los "boxeadores") quería purgar su país de influencias extranjeras, incluidos los misioneros. El "Arco Conmemorativo" en Tappan Square es un monumento a los misioneros entrenados por Oberlin que fueron asesinados en el Levantamiento / Rebelión de los Bóxers. Más recientemente, se agregó una placa al Arco para honrar a los ciudadanos chinos que también murieron en la violencia.

¿Por qué la plaza del pueblo se llama Tappan Square?

La plaza de Oberlin recibió el nombre de Tappan Square en la década de 1940, en honor a Arthur y Lewis Tappan, ricos comerciantes de la ciudad de Nueva York que apoyaron al Oberlin College en sus inicios y que fueron ardientes abolicionistas. La plaza se conocía anteriormente como College Park o Campus. Hasta 1965 se celebró el Olmo Histórico, bajo el cual se dice que John Jay Shipherd y Philo Stewart se arrodillaron y oraron a Dios y en qué lugar decidieron fundar la ciudad. La plaza albergó edificios universitarios durante muchos años, incluido un aula universitaria de ladrillo de cinco pisos y un dormitorio para hombres y rsquos llamado Tappan Hall. A medida que los edificios de la plaza envejecieron, el área se limpió como un espacio verde para la comunidad, de acuerdo con las disposiciones del testamento de Charles Martin Hall.

¿Por qué hay rocas pintadas en Tappan Square?

Las dos rocas más grandes se colocaron en la plaza en 1897 y 1933. La clase de Oberlin College de 1898 quitó una roca de Plumb Creek y la colocó en la plaza en 1897. La placa dice & ldquoGlacial boulder de gneis granitoide del este de Canadá, excavado en 10 pies debajo de la superficie de la esquina noroeste de las calles Professor y Morgan y colocada aquí por la clase de & rsquo98 durante la noche del 3 de diciembre de 1897. & rdquo El otro, conocido como Founders Boulder, fue tomado del condado de Erie y dice & ldquoIn Memory of John J. Shipherd, Philo P. Stewart, dedicado el 17 de junio de 1933. & rdquo

Las placas en las rocas han sido cubiertas por cientos de capas de pintura y son apenas legibles. Las rocas se convirtieron en vallas publicitarias públicas en la década de 1960 y pronto incluso los funcionarios universitarios se unieron a la tradición de pintar las rocas. Hoy en día, cualquiera puede pintarlos por orden de llegada. Visite oberlinrocks.com para ver más imágenes de las rocas pintadas.

¿Dónde hay "otros Oberlins"?

Además de Oberlin en Ohio, hay comunidades llamadas Oberlin en Alsace-Lorain, Francia y en Kansas, Luisiana, Michigan, Oklahoma y Pensilvania. Varios otros lugares llevan nombres de & ldquoOberlin & rdquo, incluida la playa de Oberlin en el lago Erie, donde algunas familias de Oberlin tenían casas de verano. Hay un vecindario de Oberlin en Raleigh, Carolina del Norte que comenzó en la era de la Reconstrucción como una comunidad para negros recientemente liberados.

En noviembre de 1910, el entonces superintendente del parque, George W. Hinman (OC, 1893) designó una secuoya "Oberlin" en el parque de Yosemite. En 2001 todavía estaba en pie, al oeste del Museo (o cabaña), aunque ahora tiene una gran cicatriz de fuego. También hay una montaña y una cascada en el Parque Nacional Glacier llamada Oberlin, una pequeña entrada de agua en el área de Georgian Bay de Ontario nombrada por los residentes de verano de Oberlin. Consulte el artículo sobre otros Oberlins en nuestro Centro de recursos escrito por Richard Lothrop para obtener información mucho más detallada.


Cronología de la historia y las mujeres afroamericanas: 1800–1859

La primera mitad del siglo XIX es un período fundamental en la historia del movimiento activista negro norteamericano, con muchas de las figuras clave que influirían en generaciones de defensores que luchan contra el racismo y los prejuicios y por los derechos de los afroamericanos haciendo su aparición. Este es el período que da lugar a eventos tan importantes como el Ferrocarril Subterráneo, activistas como Frederick Douglass y publicaciones contra la esclavitud como El Libertador.

11 de febrero: Nace Lydia Maria Child. Se convertirá en una activista y escritora negra norteamericana del siglo XIX que también aboga por los derechos de las mujeres y los derechos de los pueblos indígenas. Su pieza más conocida hoy en día es la hogareña "Over the River and Through the Wood", pero su influyente escrito contra la esclavitud ayuda a influir en muchos estadounidenses hacia el activismo. También publicará "Un llamamiento a favor de la clase de estadounidenses llamados africanos" en 1822 y "Catecismo contra la esclavitud" en 1836.

3 de mayo: El Congreso prohíbe el empleo por parte del Servicio Postal de los EE. UU. De cualquier afroamericano, declarando:

Septiembre 1: James Callendar acusa a Thomas Jefferson de tener "como concubina a una de sus propias esclavas": Sally Hemings. La acusación se publica por primera vez en el Grabadora Richmond. Justo un año antes de su muerte, Callendar se vuelve contra su antiguo patrón, comenzando su pieza con las palabras:

Lee Snider / Photo Images / Getty Images

19 de febrero: Se adopta la Constitución de Ohio, que proscribe la esclavitud y prohíbe a los negros libres el derecho al voto. "Los miembros de la convención (fallan) en extender el sufragio a los hombres afroamericanos en la constitución por un solo voto", según Ohio History Central. Pero el documento sigue siendo "una de las constituciones estatales más democráticas de Estados Unidos hasta ese momento", afirma el sitio web.

3 de septiembre: Nace Prudence Crandall. La cuáquera, activista norteamericana contra la esclavitud del siglo XIX y maestra desafiará los patrones predominantes de discriminación racial cuando abra una de las primeras escuelas del país para niñas negras en Connecticut en 1833.

Archivos provisionales / Getty Images

20 de febrero: Nace Angelina Emily Grimke Weld. Grimke, es una mujer sureña de una familia de esclavizadores que, junto con su hermana, Sarah Moore Grimke, se convertirá en una activista negra norteamericana del siglo XIX y defensora de los derechos de las mujeres. Con su hermana y su esposo, Theodore Weld, Angelina Grimke también escribirá "La esclavitud estadounidense tal como es", un importante texto contra la esclavitud.

25 de julio: Nace Maria Weston Chapman. Se convertirá en una destacada activista negra norteamericana del siglo XIX. Comenzará su trabajo de activismo en 1834, particularmente para la Sociedad Femenina Anti-Esclavitud de Boston. Tendrá una larga carrera literaria publicando "Songs of the Free, and Hymns of Christian Freedom" en 1836, editando los informes anuales de la Female Anti-Slavery Society titulados Bien y mal en Boston también en 1836, publicando "Liberty Bell" y ayudando a editar El libertador y No resistente, Publicaciones de activistas negros norteamericanos del siglo XIX, en 1839. También organizó la Feria contra la esclavitud en Boston en 1842, comenzó a editar la Norma nacional contra la esclavitud en 1844, y publicó "Cómo puedo ayudar a abolir la esclavitud" en 1855.

9 de septiembre: Nace Sarah Mapps Douglass. Se convertirá en una activista y educadora negra norteamericana del siglo XIX. En 1831, Douglass ayuda a recaudar fondos en apoyo del periódico de William Lloyd Garrison, El libertador. Ella y su madre también se encuentran entre las mujeres que, en 1833, fundaron la Sociedad Anti-Esclavitud Femenina de Filadelfia.

Nueva Jersey aprueba una legislación que restringe el derecho al voto a los ciudadanos varones blancos libres, eliminando el voto de todos los afroamericanos y mujeres, algunos de los cuales habían votado antes del cambio. El Servicio de Parques Nacionales señala que la legislatura que bloquea el derecho al voto de las mujeres tiene como objetivo:

El NPS también señala que la "primera constitución del estado en 1776 otorgó derechos de voto a 'todos los habitantes de esta colonia, mayores de edad, que valen cincuenta libras ... y hayan residido dentro del condado ... durante doce meses'. "La medida de la legislatura de Nueva Jersey es parte de una ola creciente por parte de los gobiernos estatales que restringen los derechos de voto de las mujeres y los afroamericanos.

25 de enero: Ohio aprueba leyes negras que restringen los derechos de los negros libres y endurecen aún más las restricciones, promulgadas en 1804, que habían sido impulsadas por colonos blancos de Kentucky y Virginia y un grupo creciente de empresarios que tenían vínculos con la esclavitud del sur. El estado de Buckeye se convierte así en el primer cuerpo legislativo del país en aprobar tales leyes. Estas leyes permanecerán en vigor hasta 1849.

Enero 1: La importación de personas esclavizadas a los Estados Unidos se vuelve ilegal. Aproximadamente 250.000 africanos más son importados a los Estados Unidos después de que se vuelve ilegal hacerlo. Eric Foner, profesor de historia en la Universidad de Columbia, le explica a NPR:

Print Collector / Hulton Archive / Getty Images

17 de febrero: Nueva York comienza a reconocer los matrimonios de personas esclavizadas, afirmando que:

Se funda la African Female Benevolent Society de Newport, Rhode Island. El grupo se enfoca en las necesidades de la comunidad Black Newport al vestir y educar a muchos niños desfavorecidos.

27 de noviembre: Nace Fanny Kemble. Ella publicará el "Diario de una residencia en una plantación georgiana en 1838-1839" contra la esclavitud. Kemble nació en Gran Bretaña en una familia de actores y también se convierte en una actriz famosa que también realiza giras de actuación en los Estados Unidos. Durante una de sus giras, conoce y se casa con Pierce Mease Butler, quien hereda una plantación en Georgia que esclaviza a cientos de negros. gente. Kemble y Butler viven en Filadelfia, pero ella visita la plantación de Georgia un verano. En esa visita basa su diario. Kemble también expresa sus opiniones contra la esclavitud en una memoria de 11 volúmenes.

14 de junio: Nace Harriet Beecher Stowe. Se convierte en la autora de "La cabaña del tío Tom", que expresa su indignación moral por la institución de la esclavitud y sus efectos destructivos sobre los estadounidenses blancos y negros. El libro ayuda a construir un sentimiento anti-esclavitud en Estados Unidos y en el extranjero. Cuando Stowe se encuentra con el presidente Abraham Lincoln en 1862, se dice que exclama: "¡Así que tú eres la mujercita que escribió el libro que inició esta gran guerra!"

Tim Pierce / Dominio público

Boston incorpora la Escuela Africana de la ciudad en el sistema de escuelas públicas de la ciudad. Los estudiantes negros se habían inscrito en la escuela desde que fue fundada en 1798 por 60 miembros de la comunidad negra en Boston, según OhRanger.com, un editor de guías para visitantes de los parques nacionales de EE. UU. Y hogar de American Park Network. OhRanger.com señala que el Comité Escolar de Boston está "desgastado por décadas de peticiones y solicitudes", y este año reconoce:

Colección Kean / Getty Images

12 de noviembre: Nace Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Se convertirá en líder, escritora y activista del movimiento por el sufragio femenino del siglo XIX, así como del movimiento contra la esclavitud. Stanton a menudo trabaja con Susan B. Anthony como teórica y escritora, mientras que Anthony es el portavoz público del movimiento por los derechos de las mujeres.

13 de agosto: Nace Lucy Stone. Será la primera mujer en Massachusetts en obtener un título universitario y la primera mujer en los Estados Unidos en mantener su propio nombre después del matrimonio. También se convierte en una destacada editora y activista norteamericana contra la esclavitud y defensora de los derechos de las mujeres en el siglo XIX.

Harriet Tubman, esclavizada desde su nacimiento, nace en Maryland. La capacidad organizativa de Tubman más tarde resulta fundamental para el desarrollo y ejecución del Ferrocarril Subterráneo, una red de opositores a la esclavitud que ayudó a los que buscaban la libertad antes de la Guerra Civil. También se convertirá en una activista negra norteamericana del siglo XIX, defensora de los derechos de las mujeres, soldado, espía y conferencista.

15 de febrero: Nace Susan B. Anthony. Se convertirá en una reformadora, activista norteamericana contra la esclavitud del siglo XIX, defensora de los derechos de las mujeres y conferencista. Junto con Stanton, su socio de toda la vida en la organización política, Anthony juega un papel fundamental en el activismo que lleva a que las mujeres estadounidenses obtengan el derecho al voto.

El estado de Nueva York pone fin a las calificaciones de propiedad para los votantes varones blancos, pero mantiene tales calificaciones para los votantes varones negros. Las mujeres no están incluidas en la franquicia. Como explica Bennett Liebman en su artículo, "The Quest for Black Voting Rights in New York State", publicado en 2018 en la Revisión de la ley del gobierno de Albany:

Para no ser superado por Nueva York al despojar a los negros de los derechos, Missouri también elimina el derecho al voto de los afroamericanos este año. Al año siguiente, Rhode Island también elimina el derecho al voto de los afroamericanos.

Wikimedia Commons / Dominio público

9 de octubre: Nace Mary Ann Shadd Cary. Se convertirá en una destacada periodista, maestra y activista negra norteamericana del siglo XIX. Después de la aprobación de la Ley de esclavos fugitivos en 1850, Cary, con su hermano y su esposa, emigrarán a Canadá, publicando "A Plea for Emigration or Notes of Canada West" instando a otros afroamericanos a huir por su seguridad a la luz de la nueva situación legal que niega que cualquier persona negra tenga derechos como ciudadano estadounidense.

24 de septiembre: Frances Ellen Watkins Harper nace en Maryland de padres negros libres. Se convertirá en escritora y activista negra norteamericana del siglo XIX. También se convertirá en defensora de los derechos de la mujer y miembro de la American Woman Suffrage Association. Sus escritos, que se centran en temas de justicia racial, igualdad y libertad, incluyen "Poemas sobre temas diversos", que incluye el poema contra la esclavitud "Bury Me in a Free Land".

En octubre: Frances Wright compra tierras cerca de Memphis y funda la plantación Nashoba, comprando personas esclavizadas que trabajarían para comprar su libertad, recibir educación y luego, cuando se muden libremente fuera de los Estados Unidos. When Wright's plantation project fails, she takes the remaining enslaved people to freedom in Haiti.

6 de junio: Sarah Parker Remond is born. She will become an anti-enslavement lecturer whose British lectures help keep England from entering the Civil War on the side of the Confederacy. Before giving these speeches, in 1853, Remond also tries to integrate a Boston theater and is hurt when a policeman pushes her—more than a century before Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a public bus, leading to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Remond sues the officer and wins a $500 judgment. In 1856, she will be hired as a lecturer for the American Anti-Slavery Society.

New York Library Digital Collection / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

New York state ends the practice of enslavement. However, "complete abolition (will) not be achieved until 1841 when the state (revokes) a law that made nonresidents able to hold slaves for up to 9 months," according to the website NYC Urbanism LLC.

August 15–22: Race riots in Cincinnati erupt "when gangs of white residents (begin) attacking Black residents in the street and (descend) on their homes," according to the Zinn Education Project. The riots result in more than half the Black residents in the city being forced out of town.

The first permanent order of African American Catholic nuns is founded, the Oblate Sisters of Providence, in Maryland. Nearly 175 years later, in 2000, Mayor Martin O'Malley and officials gather at 610 George Street "for the unveiling of a stone monument commemorating the site where, in a rented house, no longer extant, Mother Mary Elizabeth Lange founded the Oblate Sisters of Providence, the oldest order of black nuns in the nation," according to The Baltimore Sun.

Carol M. Highsmith / Wikimedia Commons

North Carolina bans the teaching of any enslaved person to read and write. The bill, states, in part:

January 17: Alabama bans preaching by any African Americans, free or enslaved. The legislative action is laid out in Act 44, which is "part of a series of increasingly restrictive laws governing the behavior of free and enslaved Black people (prohibiting) Black people from being freed within the state and (authorizing) re-enslavement of any free Black person who entered the state," notes eji.org, a website that catalogs the history of racial injustice in the U.S.

September: Enslaved men and women of the ship Amistad take over the ship and demand that the U.S. recognize their freedom. While it begins more than 4,000 miles from the jurisdiction of the U.S. federal courts, the Amistad case, which reaches the U.S. Supreme Court in 1841, remains one of the most dramatic and meaningful legal battles in America’s history, turning the federal courts into a public forum on the very legality of enslavement. The U.S. Supreme Court eventually frees the captives, and the 35 survivors return to Africa in November 1841.

Jarena Lee publishes her autobiography, "The Life and Religious Experience of Jarena Lee," the first by an African American woman. Lee is also the first authorized female preacher in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, according to BlackPast, and she is heavily involved in the North American 19th-century Black activist movement.

Kean Collection / Archive Photos / Getty Images

Maria W. Stewart begins a series of four public lectures on religion and justice, advocating for racial equality, racial unity, and advocacy for rights among African Americans. A North American 19th-century Black activist and lecturer, she is the first United States-born woman of any race to give a political speech in public. Indeed, she predates—and greatly influences—later Black activists and thinkers such as Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth. A contributor to El libertador, Stewart is active in progressive circles and also influences groups such as the New England Anti-Slavery Society.

Febrero: The Female Anti-Slavery Society is founded in Salem, Massachusetts, by and for African American women. Like most free Black anti-enslavement societies, the Salem organization addresses issues important to free Black people and participates in the campaign against enslavement. A number of other female anti-enslavement societies will be established in various U.S. cities in the coming years.

September 2: Oberlin College is founded in Ohio, admitting women and African Americans as students along with White men. Tuition is free.

Kean Collection / Getty Images

Sarah Mapps Douglass, after working as a teacher in New York, returns to Philadelphia to lead the school for Black girls that her mother had founded with the help of wealthy Black Philadelphia businessman James Forten when Douglass was 13 years old.

In Connecticut, Prudence Crandall admits a Black student to her girls' school. She reacts to disapproval by dismissing the White students and reopens it as a school for African American Girls in March 1933. She will stand trial later this year for admitting the Black student. She would close the school the following year in the face of harassment from the community.

Mayo 24: Connecticut passes a law forbidding the enrollment of Black students from outside the state without the permission of the local legislature. Under this statute, Crandall is jailed for one night.

August 23: Crandall's trial begins. The defense uses a constitutionality argument that free African Americans had rights in all states. The judgment, handed down in July 1834, goes against Crandall, but the Connecticut Supreme Court reverses the lower court's decision, though not on constitutional grounds.

December: The American Anti-Slavery Society is founded, with four women attending, and Lucretia Mott speaks at the first meeting. In the same month, Mott and others found the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society. The Philadelphia group operates for more than three and a half decades before dissolving in 1870, five years after the end of the Civil War.

New York absorbs Black schools into the public school system. The Africa Free School, which was established in 1798 in Greenwich Village in New York City, was the first school for Black students in the United States, according to the Village Preservation Blog. By 1834, seven such schools exist with an enrollment of "thousands" of Black students, and those are absorbed into the city's school system, the website notes. But New York City's Black schools will remain firmly segregated for many years.

As New York City takes a small step forward, South Carolina tightens restrictions on Black education, banning the teaching of all African Americans in the state, free or enslaved.

January 8: Fannie Jackson Coppin is born. Enslaved from birth, Coppin gains her freedom (with the help of her aunt), attends Rhode Island State Normal School, and then Oberlin College, where she is the first Black person chosen to be a pupil-teacher. After graduating in 1865, Coppin is appointed to the Institute for Colored Youth, a Quaker school in Philadelphia. During her life, she works as a "teacher, principal, lecturer, missionary to Africa, and warrior against the most cruel oppression," according to Coppin State University. The Black college in Northwest Baltimore was ultimately named for her in 1926 as Fanny Jackson Coppin Normal School.

Angelina Grimke publishes her anti-enslavement letter, "Appeal to the Christian Women of the South" and her sister, Sarah Moore Grimke, publishes her anti-enslavement letter, "Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States."

August 17: Charlotte Forten is born (she later becomes Charlotte Forten Grimke). She will become known for her writings about the schools in the Sea Islands for formerly enslaved people and serve as a teacher at such a school. Grimke also becomes an anti-enslavement activist, poet, and the wife of prominent Black leader Rev. Francis J. Grimke.

Garrison and others win the right of women to join the American Anti-Slavery Society, and for the Grimke sisters and other women to speak to mixed (male and female) audiences.

The Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women is held in New York. The convention is one of the first times women meet and speak publicly at this scale.

February 21: Angelina Grimke speaks to the Massachusetts legislature, the first woman to address a legislative body in the United States. Presenting anti-enslavement petitions signed by 20,000 Massachusetts women, she tells the body: "We are citizens of this republic and as such our honor, happiness, and well-being are bound up in its politics, government, and laws," according to the website MassMoments. The Grimke sisters also publish "American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses."

Helen Pitts is born. She will become the second wife of Frederick Douglass. She also becomes a suffragist and a North American 19th-century anti-enslavement activist. Her interracial marriage to Douglass is considered surprising and scandalous.

May 15–18: The Philadelphia Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women meets in Philadelphia. One of the motions at the convention, according to documents held by the Library of Congress, reads:

Women are permitted to vote for the first time at an annual convention of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Lucretia Mott, Lydia Maria Child, and Maria Weston Chapman make up the executive committee of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society.

June 12–23: The World Anti-Slavery Convention is held in London. It does not seat women or allow them to speak Mott and Stanton meet over this issue and their reaction leads directly to organizing, in 1848, the first woman's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York.

Abby Kelley's new leadership role in the American Anti-Slavery Society leads some members to secede over women's participation.

Lydia Maria Child and David Child edit Anti-Slavery Standard, the official weekly newspaper of the American Anti-Slavery Society. It will be published regularly until the passage of the 15th Amendment in 1870.

Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin is born. A journalist, activist, and lecturer, she will become the first Black American to graduate from Harvard Law School and later serve on the Boston City Council and the state legislature. She will also become the first Black municipal judge in Boston.

Sojourner Truth begins her North American 19th-century Black activist work, changing her name from Isabella Van Wagener. Freed from enslavement by New York state law in 1827, she serves as an itinerant preacher before becoming involved in the anti-enslavement and women's rights movements. In 1864, Truth will meet Abraham Lincoln in his White House office.

July: Edmonia Lewis is born. A woman of Black American and Native American heritage, she will become a well-known sculptor. Her work, which features themes of freedom and anti-enslavement activism, becomes popular after the Civil War and earns her numerous accolades. Lewis depicts African, Black American, and Native American people in her work, and she is particularly recognized for her naturalism within the neoclassical genre.

Junio ​​21: Edmonia Highgate is born. She will become a fundraiser, after the Civil War, for the Freedman's Association and the American Missionary Society, whose mission is to educate formerly enslaved people. The group, which remains in existence until 1999, will "dramatically" increase the number of schools and colleges it founds for formerly enslaved people after the Civil war, including Fisk University, Hampton Institute, Tougaloo College, Atlanta University, Dillard University, Talladega College, and Howard University, according to BlackPast.

Museum of the City of New York / Archive Photos / Getty Images

Rebecca Cole is born. She will be the second Black American woman to graduate from medical school and work with Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman in the United States to graduate from medical school and to become a practicing physician, in New York.

July 19–20: The Woman's Rights Convention is held in Seneca Falls, New York. Included among its attendees are Frederick Douglass and other male and female anti-enslavement activists. Sixty-eight women and 32 men sign the Declaration of Sentiments.

July: Tubman gains her freedom, returning repeatedly to free more than 300 freedom seekers. Tubman becomes well known as an Underground Railroad conductor, a North American 19th-century Black activist, spy, soldier, and nurse. She served during the Civil War and advocated for civil rights and women's suffrage.

January 13: Charlotte Ray is born. She will become the first Black American woman lawyer in the United States and the first woman admitted to the bar in the District of Columbia.

5 de junio: "Uncle Tom's Cabin" begins publication as a serial in National Era.

March 10: Hallie Quinn Brown is born. She will become an educator, lecturer, reformer, and Harlem Renaissance figure. Brown will graduate from Wilberforce University in Ohio and teach in schools in Mississippi and South Carolina. In 1885, she will become the dean of Allen University in South Carolina and study at the Chautauqua Lecture School. She will teach public school in Dayton, Ohio, for four years, and then serve as lady principal (dean of women) of Alabama's Tuskegee Institute, working with Booker T. Washington.

Johanna July is born. A Black Indigenous person of the Seminole Tribe, she learns to tame horses at an early age and becomes a female cowhand, or "cowgirl."

September 18: The Fugitive Slave Act is passed by Congress. Part of the Compromise of 1850, it is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation in American history. The law requires that enslaved people be returned to their owners, even if they are in a free state. It brings the injustice of enslavement home, making the issue impossible to ignore, and helps inspire Harriet Beecher Stowe to write "Uncle Tom's Cabin."

Lucy Stanton graduates from Oberlin Collegiate Institute, now Oberlin College, the first Black American woman to graduate from a four-year college in the U.S.

December: Tubman makes her first trip back to the South to help members of her family to freedom she will make a total of 19 trips back to help freedom seekers to safety.

Chip Somodevilla / Getty Images

May 29: Sojourner Truth gives her "Ain't I A Woman" speech to a women's rights convention in Akron, Ohio, in reaction to male hecklers. Later published in the Anti-Slavery Bugle on June 21, 1851, it begins:

Bettmann / Contributor / Getty Images

20 de Marzo: "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is published in book form, in Boston, selling more than 300,000 copies the first year.

December 13: Frances Wright dies. "Born in Scotland and orphaned at the age of two, (she) rose from rather inauspicious beginnings to fame as a writer and reformer," says the Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia. Wright becomes particularly known for her writings decrying the system of enslavement.

March 24: Cary begins publishing a weekly, The Provincial Freeman, from her exile in Canada, becoming one of the first female journalists in Canada and the first Black woman in North America to publish a newspaper.

31 de marzo: Elizabeth Taylor Greenfield appears at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, and later that year performs before Queen Victoria. Ironically, for the New York performance, no Black people are allowed into the venue to see Greenfield—also known as "The Black Swan"—due to local ordinances.

July 11: Katy Ferguson dies. She has been an educator who ran a school in New York City for poor children.

Sarah Emlen Cresson and John Miller Dickey, a married couple, found Ashmun Institute, to educate African American men. According to the school's website:

The school, still in operation, is renamed Lincoln University in 1866 in honor of the recently assassinated president.

Library of Congress / Getty Images

The Dred Scott decision of the United States Supreme Court declares that African Americans are not U.S. citizens. For almost 10 years, Scott had struggled to regain his freedom—arguing that since he lived with his enslaver, John Emerson, in a free state, he should be free. However, after a long battle, the high court rules that since Scott is not a citizen, he cannot sue in a federal court. Also, as an enslaved person, as property, he and his family have no right to sue in a court of law either, the court rules.

October 2: Lydia Maria Child writes to the Governor Wise of Virginia, regretting the action of John Brown, in raiding the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, but asking for admission to nurse the prisoner. Published in the newspaper, this leads to a correspondence that is also published. In December, Child's responds to a pro-enslavement advocate defending the South's "caring attitude" toward enslaved people, included the famous line, "I have never known an instance where the 'pangs of maternity' did not meet with requisite assistance and here at the North, after we have helped the mothers, we do not sell the babies."

"Our Nig Or Sketches from the Life of a Free Black" by Harriet Wilson is published, the first novel by an African American writer.


¡Gracias!

She held her own. When she graduated in 1862, it was with high honors. Now, she decided to challenge herself not as a student, but as an educator. After teaching in Ohio for a year, she moved to Virginia. In a letter of recommendation, her principal at Oberlin recommended her as &ldquoa superior scholar, a good singer, a faithful Christian, and a genteel lady.&rdquo

But though he recommended she be paid the most available to women, she only stayed at the job for a year before moving to Philadelphia. There, she taught at the Institute of Colored Youth (now Cheyney University of Pennsylvania), the oldest predominantly black institute of higher education in the U.S., before moving to a preparatory high school for African-American youth in Washington, D.C.

Patterson went on to break other barriers. In 1871, she became her school&rsquos first black principal she served in that role for two years until she was demoted in favor of the first black man to graduate from Harvard. She took her position again the next year, but left after nearly a decade when she was told that the thriving school was now so big it needed a man in charge.

As a fellow Oberlin student recalled, &ldquoShe was a woman with a strong, forceful personality, and showed tremendous power for good in establishing high intellectual standards in the public schools.&rdquo

In the years since Patterson&rsquos educational triumph, other contenders for the &ldquofirst&rdquo title she commonly holds have been discovered by historians. One of them, Lucy Stanton Day Sessions, is now thought to be the first black woman to graduate with a degree, but she graduated from a women&rsquos course at Oberlin that did not award a bachelor&rsquos. And Grace A. Mapps, a poet, graduated from a four-year college in New York in 1852, but it is unclear if she was awarded a Bachelor of Arts or some other degree.

Each of these women &mdash and the other African-American women who aren&rsquot named here &mdash fought for an education during a time when Americans could not even agree on whether to they had the right to be citizens. Patterson died in 1894, and though her name is largely forgotten today she left a rich legacy as both an educator and an early example of educational attainment in the African-American community.


Antoinette Brown Blackwell

Antoinette Brown Blackwell (1825–1921), was the first woman to be ordained as a minister in the United States. She was also a well-versed public speaker on the social reform issues of her time, and used her religious faith in her efforts to expand women’s rights. Always ahead of her time, she wrote prolifically on religion and science, constructing a theoretical foundation for sexual equality.

Early Years
Antoinette Louisa Brown was born in Henrietta, New York on May 20, 1825, the daughter of Joseph and Abby Morse Brown. From childhood on she preferred writing and men’s farm chores to housework. Brown’s parents were very religious and, during her childhood, they were inspired by the many of the revivals sweeping through upstate New York at that time.

One Sunday when Antoinette was eight, a visiting preacher challenged the people of her family’s church to give their lives to God. The following week Antoinette told her Sunday School teacher that she wanted to be a minister. The teacher firmly cautioned her that girls could not be ministers.

At the age of sixteen, after completing her requisite early schooling at Monroe County Academy (1838-1840), Brown became a schoolteacher. However, she was not content with that profession and soon set her sights on a degree from Oberlin College in Ohio. In four years of teaching, she saved enough money to cover the cost of her tuition.

Supported by her parents, who believed in equal education for men and women, Brown enrolled at Oberlin in 1846. After receiving her literary degree (the prescribed course for women students) in 1847, Brown requested to be admitted to the theology department in order to train for the ministry.

Although Oberlin espoused education for women, the administration opposed the idea of a female engaging in any kind of theological training. Brown’s family were also against this. Brown was adamant and finally, as a compromise, the faculty allowed her to attend the lectures and to accept invitations to preach, but she would not receive formal recognition for her studies.

While she was at Oberlin, Brown became increasingly involved in the women’s rights, temperance and anti-slavery movements. Despite widespread opposition to public speaking by women, in 1847 Brown
delivered several speeches on temperance in Ohio, and lectured about women’s rights at the Baptist church in her hometown of Henrietta, New York.

However, during the three years that she spent studying theology she was constantly reminded by both faculty and fellow students that the Bible did not approve of women speaking in church. She had to get special permission from her professor and from the Theological Literary Society to speak in class in order to present essays.

In one of these essays, which was published in the Oberlin Quarterly Review, Brown claimed that, in asking women to be silent in church, St. Paul meant only to warn against excesses in public worship. This is where her understanding of what may now be popularly called feminist theology takes shape. She insisted that the Bible’s pronouncements about women were not applicable to the 19th century.

In 1850, Antoinette Brown completed her theological studies at Oberlin College. At the commencement, however, the faculty refused to recognize her studies and withheld the degree in theology. Nor was she given a license to preach.

Social Reform
For the time being Brown decided to put her ministerial ambitions on hold. She traveled to Worcester, Massachusetts, to attend the first National Women’s Rights Convention, giving a speech that was well received. This served as the beginning of a career as an independent lecturer. She spoke throughout Pennsylvania, Ohio and New England on social reform issues, and preached sermons on Sundays when invited.

In 1851 she applied for a license to preach in the Congregational Church, but was denied because she was a woman. In 1852 the Church relented and gave Brown a license to preach, but she was not ordained. Sometimes Brown preached in Unitarian churches, including those of Theodore Parker and William Ellery Channing.

In the fall of 1852 Brown received an invitation to serve as minister for the Congregational Church in rural South Butler, New York. She accepted the call, turning down an offer from Horace Greeley and Charles Dana for a substantial salary if she would hold Sunday services in a New York City hall.

Because the Congregational clergy were reluctant to ordain a woman as a minister, on September 15, 1853 Brown was ordained by a socially radical Methodist minister named Luther Lee, a passionate and vocal advocate of women’s right to theological education and leadership.

At her ordination, Lee delivered a sermon testifying to Brown’s suitability as a preacher and her calling from God:

If God and mental and moral culture have not already qualified her… All we are here to do is to subscribe our testimony to the fact that in our belief our sister in Christ, Antoinette L. Brown, is one of the ministers of the New Covenant, authorized, qualified and called by God to preach the gospel of his Son Jesus Christ.

On this ceremony rested her claim to be the first woman ordained by a regular Protestant denomination in the United States. Although later historians would question whether this was the first ordination of a woman, at the time it was recognized as such, and for all of her life Brown was known as the first ordained woman.

Antoinette Brown entered her ministry with enthusiasm. “The pastoral labors at S. Butler suit me even better than I expected,” she wrote, “and my heart is full of hope.” Soon thereafter she officiated at a marriage ceremony in Rochester, New York, the first wedding performed by an American woman minister.

Chosen by her church as a delegate, Brown became the center of a controversy at the 1853 World’s Temperance Convention, where fellow delegates received her credentials but shouted her off the platform, refusing to permit a woman to speak. Supported by members of the Women’s Rights Convention meeting at the same time, she brought a measure of disgrace to the male clergy in attendance.

Brown was also unprepared for the openly critical attitudes of women in her own parish, who had been long conditioned to regard the minister as a father figure. Even her intimate friends in the women’s rights movement –

Lucy Stone, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony – did not think it worthwhile for women to expend their efforts forcing entrance into an institution as corrupt and outdated as the church.

Unfortunately, Luther Lee’s unqualified support was not enough to provide Brown with a sustainable lifestyle at South Butler. In the meantime Brown had no one to counsel her in a deepening emotional crisis, and growing religious doubts increasingly troubled her. After just ten months, she resigned from the South Butler church in July 1854. It would be ten years before another woman was ordained.

A short period of rest at her family’s farm in Henrietta improved Brown’s health. Anthony encouraged her to help with the campaign for women’s right to own property in New York State. Feeling that she was once again needed, Brown began lecturing again. However, Brown was steadfast in her belief that women’s active participation in religion could serve to further their status in society.

Beginning in 1855, Brown spent a year doing volunteer work with Abigail Hopper Gibbons in the slums and prisons of New York City. Brown studied the causes of mental and social disorders, and how these affected the lives of women in poverty. She wrote a series of articles for Horace Greeley’s New York Tribune, the first of which focused on the “shadow of poverty” hovering over the streets of the city. She published these collected articles as the book Shadows of Our Social System in 1856.

During this time Antoinette Brown was courted by fellow reformer Samuel Charles Blackwell, a real estate dealer and hardware salesman from Cincinnati, Ohio, and the brother of Lucy Stone’s husband, Henry Blackwell. Samuel and Henry also had famous sisters: doctor and educator Emily Blackwell and Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States.

Matrimonio y familia
On January 24, 1856, at the fieldstone house in Henrietta where she had spent her childhood, Antoinette Brown married Samuel Blackwell. Between 1856 and 1869 she bore seven children. Of the five daughters who survived to adulthood, Florence became a Methodist minister, Edith and Ethel became physicians, and Agnes an artist and art teacher. Grace suffered from depression which prevented her from taking on challenging work.

After the wedding, Brown moved with the extended Blackwell family – many of whom were active in reform movements – from Cincinnati to New York City and later to New Jersey. Except for brief periods of lecturing and travel and an interlude in New York City between 1896 and 1901, Brown resided in various communities in northern New Jersey for the rest of her life.

Brown discontinued her lecturing career after domestic duties took up most of her time. Writing became her new outlet for initiating positive change for women writing articles for the Woman’s Journal, edited by Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell. In her works Brown encouraged women to seek masculine professions, and asked men to share household duties, yet she retained the belief that women’s primary role was care of the home and family.

During the Civil War Brown, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the Women’s National Loyal League in support of African American emancipation and enfranchisement. Unlike many of her peers, Brown cared more about improving women’s status in society than for suffrage (the right to vote). She believed that suffrage, would have little positive impact on women’s lives unless it was coupled with leadership opportunities.

Brown, contrary to many of her fellow suffragists, supported the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which granted suffrage to all men irrespective of color, but not for women. In 1869, Brown and Lucy Stone separated from other women’s rights activists to form the American Woman Suffrage Association.

After the Civil War Blackwell lectured on women’s struggle for equality and the right to vote. Though she had a sympathetic husband she still struggled to combine marriage and her “intellectual work.” In an 1873 paper for the Association for the Advancement of Women she advocated part time work for married women, with their husbands helping out with child care and housework.

As her children got older, she wrote and published several books about science and philosophy, including Studies in General Science (1869), The Physical Basis of Immortality (1876) and The Philosophy of Individuality (1893). In 1871 she published a novel The Island Neighbors, and in 1902 a book of poetry entitled Sea Drift or Tribute to the Ocean.

En su libro The Sexes Throughout Nature (1875), Brown argued that evolution resulted in two sexes that were different but equal, challenging Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer whom she considered to be the most influential men of her day, aware that she would be considered presumptuous for criticizing evolutionary theory. In 1881 she was one of the few women elected to membership in the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

After her husband’s business failed in the late 1870s, Brown returned to the lecture circuit, again traveling throughout the country. At women’s rights and suffrage conventions, she was frequently called upon to speak and to officiate at or assist in religious services. In 1878 Oberlin College awarded Brown an honorary Master’s Degree.

Brown had avoided aligning herself with any religious sect until she and her husband began visiting Unitarian churches in New York City in early 1878. She applied to the American Unitarian Association and was recognized as a minister later that year. Discouraged by the lack of opportunities that suited her family situation, by the end of 1879 she had decided to settle for occasional preaching.

Late Years
Antoinette Brown was elected president of the New Jersey Woman Suffrage Association in 1891, and helped found the American Purity Association, which supported efforts to prevent state regulation of prostitution and to reform the social relations of the sexes. She also lectured on behalf of the poor of New York City.

In 1893 she attended the Parliament of Religions during the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, where she stated:

Women are needed in the pulpit as imperatively and for the same reason that they are needed in the world – because they are women. Women have become – or when the ingrained habit of unconscious imitation has been superseded, they will become – indispensable to the religious evolution of the human race.

Samuel Blackwell died in October 1901 and a year later, Brown spoke at the funeral of fellow suffragist and friend Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Yet, in spite of her advancing age and the deaths of close friends and reform allies, Brown continued to participate in suffrage activities, where she was acknowledged with increasing admiration. While traveling on a train to a NAWSA convention in 1905, she and other suffragists were greeted along the way by admirers, asked to give speeches and interviews with reporters, and given ovations and praise.

Brown also continued her leading role in religion throughout her life. In 1902 she helped found the Unitarian Society of Elizabeth, New Jersey, serving as its minister. She was also instrumental in establishing the All Souls Unitarian Church in Elizabeth, where she served as pastor emeritus from 1908 until her death.

Brown attended women’s suffrage conventions until she was well into her eighties. After the NAWSA Convention of 1906, Brown and Anne Fitzhugh Miller spoke at a hearing before the Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage in Washington, DC. Oberlin granted Brown an honorary Doctoral Degree in 1908.

In 1920, at age 95, Antoinette Brown Blackwell – the last surviving delegate to the first national women’s rights convention at Worcester, Massachusetts in 1850 – saw the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which gave women the right to vote. She was one of the very few pioneer suffragists who voted on November 2, 1920, casting her ballot for Warren G. Harding.

Antoinette Brown Blackwell died on November 5, 1921 in Elizabeth, New Jersey at age 96. Her remains were cremated.

In 1975 the United Church of Christ began awarding the Antoinette Brown Award to ordained UCC women who “exemplify the contributions that women can make through ordained ministry…”


1838- Oberlin Admits Women - History

Before 1833, women were not allowed to do many things. For instance, women could not attend colleges. Men took these college classes to become qualified as ministers, professors, lawyers and doctors. Oberlin College is known for two great social reforms. It was the first college in the world to admit women as well as men. It also was the first college that promised to educate African-American men and women. Today, nearly all colleges and universities teach black and white men and women, but in the 1830s this was unheard of. For many years, Oberlin was the only place where black women could take college classes. One of the reasons women did not go to college in those days was because they could not become ministers, doctors, or lawyers. At Oberlin, people believed that women could become even better teachers, wives, and mothers if they were able to take college classes along with men. 2

In 1835, African Americans were rarely treated as equals, let alone allowed to attend college. That changed at Oberlin when the Lane Seminary Rebels brought their African American friends to learn with them at the college. Oberlin's acceptance of African Americans came before the civil war. A time when slavery was still legal. This was a radical accomplishment for its time. 3 To add to its success, Oberlin was also the first college to accept both African Americans and women. 4


Otterbein College

The Church of the United Brethren in Christ founded Otterbein College in Westerville, Ohio, in 1847. The college was originally known as the Otterbein University of Ohio and received its charter from the state in 1849. Admitting eight students in 1847, the school graduated its first class in 1857. The college was named after Philip William Otterbein, one of the founders of the United Brethren Church. The Church of the United Brethren later merged with the United Methodist Church.

From its beginning, Otterbein has taken pride in the diversity of its students. From the outset, the college admitted women as well as men and permitted them to pursue the same programs of study. At most colleges, women did not take the same classes as men, because many people believed that women could not handle the stress of a traditional college schedule. Otterbein's founders disagreed and women were successful at the college from the beginning. The first two students to receive diplomas from Otterbein were women. Following the example set by Oberlin College, Otterbein was one of the first colleges in the United States to admit students of any race. The school was also one of the first coeducational colleges in the United States to hire women as faculty members. Otterbein students were involved in a number of reform movements in the nineteenth century. Many students became involved in abolitionism, women's rights, and temperance activities.

Otterbein has also had a long history of both faculty and students having a significant voice in decision-making at the college. For faculty, this tradition goes back to the 1850s and 1860s. Students began to have more of a voice after World War II.


Ver el vídeo: Mujeres que hicieron historia, Isabel I (Julio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Momus

    He eliminado este pensamiento :)

  2. Honaw

    ¡Genial, se podría decir que me voló el cerebro!

  3. Dnias

    Que palabras tan adecuadas... pensamiento fenomenal, admirable

  4. Alvin

    En mi opinión, estás equivocado. Estoy seguro. Puedo probarlo. Envíeme un correo electrónico a PM.

  5. Jude

    Creo que se cometen errores. Tenemos que hablar. Escríbeme en PM.

  6. Samugis

    Bravo, esta frase bastante buena es necesaria solo por cierto.

  7. Murtaugh

    En mi opinión, no tienes razón. Puedo defender la posición. Escríbeme en PM, discutiremos.



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