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Lilith: ¿la primera esposa de Adán en el Edén o una demonio diabólica?

Lilith: ¿la primera esposa de Adán en el Edén o una demonio diabólica?


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Lilith se menciona por primera vez en los textos babilónicos antiguos como un demonio femenino alado que ataca a mujeres embarazadas y bebés. Desde Babilonia, la leyenda de "los lilith" se extendió a la antigua Anatolia, Siria, Israel, Egipto y Grecia. Con esta apariencia, como una demonio del desierto, aparece en Isaías 34:14 entre una lista de criaturas nocturnas que acecharán el destruido Reino de Edom. Esta es su única mención en la Biblia, pero su leyenda continuó creciendo en el judaísmo antiguo.

Durante la Edad Media, las fuentes judías comenzaron a reclamarla como la primera esposa audaz e independiente de Adán. ¿Cómo evolucionó Lilith de ser una demonio del desierto a la primera esposa de Adam?

Donde comenzó la historia de Lilith

La historia comienza al principio, en Génesis 1. La creación de los seres humanos se describe en Génesis 1 y nuevamente en Génesis 2. El primer relato es bastante sencillo: “Y creó Dios a la humanidad a su imagen, a imagen de Dios los creó ; varón y hembra los creó ". (Génesis 1:27).

El segundo relato describe cómo Dios formó al hombre del polvo de la tierra y luego creó a la mujer del costado (no de la costilla) del hombre: “Entonces el Señor Dios formó al hombre del polvo de la tierra y sopló en su nariz el aliento de vida; y el hombre se convirtió en un ser vivo. ... Entonces, el Señor Dios hizo que un sueño profundo cayera sobre el hombre y se durmió. Luego (tomó) de su costado y cerró su lugar con carne; y (del) lado que Jehová Dios había tomado del hombre, hizo una mujer y la trajo al hombre ”(Génesis 2: 7, 21-22).

La creación de Eva desde el techo de la Capilla Sixtina de Miguel Ángel. (Sailko / Dominio público)

En el período posbíblico, algunos eruditos judíos antiguos asumieron la postura de que Génesis 1:27 y Génesis 2: 21-22 describían dos eventos separados, ya que parece que las mujeres fueron creadas de manera diferente en estos dos relatos.

¿Fue la primera esposa de Lilith Adam?

En su artículo "Lilith" de Bible Review en la edición de octubre de 2001, la profesora Janet Howe Gaines explica este razonamiento: Considerando que cada palabra de la Biblia es precisa y sagrada, los comentaristas necesitaban un midrash [una interpretación expansiva] para explicar los dos puntos de vista diferentes en las dos narrativas de la creación de la Torá. Dios creó a la mujer dos veces: una vez con el hombre, una vez del lado del hombre; por lo que debe haber habido dos mujeres diferentes.

Dado que Adán nombra a la segunda mujer Eva; Lilith fue identificada como la primera mujer para completar la narrativa. Por lo tanto, Génesis 1:27 describe la creación de Adán y una mujer independiente, poderosa y sin nombre (Lilith).

  • ¿Qué pasó en el Edén? La traducción alternativa cuenta una historia muy diferente
  • Un paraíso perdido: en busca del Edén
  • Eva fue creada a partir de la costilla de Adán, pero ¿qué pasa con las otras mujeres? ¿De dónde vinieron las primeras mujeres de la creación antigua?

Lilith por John Collier en 1887. (Consciente / Dominio público)

Los detalles de la creación de Lilith y su relación con Adán, se relatan en El libro de Ben Sira, una obra apócrifa del siglo X a.C., Dan Ben-Amos explica que aunque este es el primer texto existente que registra la leyenda completa de Lilith, su La historia existía mucho antes.

En el período posbíblico, los sabios rabínicos identifican a Lilith varias veces con el título de “la Primera Eva”, lo que indica que su historia completa era bien conocida en la tradición oral. Finalmente, en el siglo X a. C. en Babilonia, un escritor anónimo que incluyó en su libro algunos otros relatos sexualmente explícitos, explicó el comportamiento audaz de Lilith.

¿En qué se diferenciaba Lilith de Eva?

Los Cuentos de Ben Sira relatan que Dios creó a Lilith de la tierra, tal como había creado a Adán. Inmediatamente comenzaron a pelear porque Adam siempre quiso estar encima de Lilith y nunca accedería a servir bajo las órdenes de Lilith.

Reconociendo que Adam no se rendiría ante ella, Lilith "pronunció el Nombre Inefable y voló por los aires" (Los cuentos de Ben Sira). Tres ángeles Snvi, Snsvi y Smnglof fueron enviados a perseguir a Lilith, pero ella se negó ferozmente a regresar con ellos al Jardín del Edén.

La determinación de Lilith

`` ¡Déjame! '', Dijo Lilith. “Fui creado solo para causar enfermedades a los bebés. Si el niño es varón, tengo dominio sobre él durante ocho días después de su nacimiento [hasta que su circuncisión el octavo día después de su nacimiento lo proteja], y si es mujer, durante veinte días "(Los cuentos de Ben Sira).

Adam agarra a un niño en presencia de la ladrona de niños Lilith. (Andreagrossmann / Dominio público)

Como compromiso, Lilith prometió que si veía los nombres o las formas de los ángeles en los amuletos, dejaría al niño en paz. Lilith también estuvo de acuerdo en que 100 de sus hijos, demonios, morirían todos los días, pero afirmó con vehemencia que el resto viviría.

Si el primer macho solo hubiera aceptado servir bajo la primera mitad del tiempo (eso es todo lo que ella le pidió), Lilith habría sido Eva: es mejor vivir fuera del jardín con Eva que dentro de él sin ella. ¡Bendito sea el que nos unió y me enseñó a conocer la bondad de su corazón y la dulzura de su alma! "Dondequiera que ella estuviera, allí estaba el Edén". (Adaptado de Mark Twain)

La caída del hombre. (JarektUploadBot / Dominio público)


La verdad no contada de Lilith

Si eres el tipo de persona que disfruta de los medios espeluznantes, ya sean películas, televisión, libros, cómics o videojuegos, existe la posibilidad de que te hayas encontrado con la figura de Lilith. Dependiendo de la fuente, es posible que la conozca como la primera esposa real de Adam que precedió a Eva, o tal vez como el primer vampiro o una súcubo que les da a los hombres sueños sexys. En Las escalofriantes aventuras de Sabrina, ella es la concubina de Satanás disfrazada de maestra vampira de secundaria. Si eres judío, podrías pensar en ella como una demonio que come bebés. Para otros, podría ser un símbolo de la feminidad oprimida, o incluso una diosa.

Pero lo que quizás no sepa es de dónde vino. Puede ser fácil asumir que ella proviene de la Biblia, ya que se sabe que fue la primera esposa de Adán, y Adán definitivamente es de la Biblia. Si ese es el caso, podría sorprenderte saber que la palabra "Lilith" solo aparece una vez en la Biblia y no tiene nada que ver con Adán o Eva. De hecho, Lilith probablemente no sea judía en absoluto, y tiene un origen complicado que implica mucho tiempo, muchas fuentes y muchas interpretaciones. Si eres el tipo de persona que se deja tentar fácilmente por una línea como esa, aquí hay algunas cosas que quizás no sepas sobre Lilith, la seductora madre de los demonios.


Lilith: ¿la primera esposa de Adán en el Edén o una demonio diabólica? - Historia

En medio de las noches victorianas llenas de niebla, los pacientes padres susurraban suavemente canciones de cuna a sus hijos insomnes, calmando sus temores de que un monstruo pudiera estar merodeando debajo de su cama. Poco sabían que un monstruo particularmente peligroso se escondía en las oscuras grietas de la etimología de su consuelo: algunos argumentan que la palabra 'canción de cuna' se deriva del hebreo 'Lilith abi', que significa 'Lilith, vete' (Gorrell 100) . Los orígenes de la demonia Lilith se remontan a los albores de los cultos monoteístas según el Talmud judío, escrito durante el siglo II, ella fue la primera esposa de Adán, creada igual a él a diferencia de su segunda esposa Eva, quien fue diseñada como su obediente. pareja. Después de negarse a adoptar la posición sumisa durante las relaciones sexuales, fue expulsada del Jardín del Edén, enviada al infierno y condenada a ver morir a todos sus hijos. Según una leyenda, transformó su cuerpo en el de la serpiente Nahash para tentar a la nueva esposa de Adán, Eva, a su ruina.

A lo largo de los siglos, su personaje sufrió la reputación de una devoradora de niños con forma de serpiente y una tentadora sexualmente atractiva para los hombres (Patai 296). La trágica figura de Lilith, que siempre permaneció en los círculos confinados de las historias orales talmúdicas y judías, y merodeó a la sombra de la Edad Media y la era moderna temprana, lejos de la luz, posiblemente debido a la hegemonía cristiana del período en Europa Occidental. Sin embargo, Lilith se arrastró lentamente hacia el subconsciente general de la sociedad victoriana, donde pasó de ser un teriantropo sediento de sangre a un seductor Femme Fatale, debido a diferentes factores culturales y religiosos.

La primera aparición de Lilith que trasciende los textos religiosos antiguos al folclore de Europa occidental aparece en la magistral obra Fausto de 1808 de Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, donde se presentó a la súcubo como la primera esposa de Adán, una mujer de gran belleza, un peligro contra quien se advierte a Fausto. John Keats introdujo tímidamente a la figura en la Gran Bretaña del siglo XIX con sus poemas llenos de Lilith "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" (texto) y "Lamia" (la traducción romana del nombre Lilith), en los que peligrosas tentadoras atraían a los hombres a las profundidades. de desesperación. Las obras de Goethe y Keats iniciaron el proceso de trascendencia de Lilith. Poco a poco obtuvo no solo un cuerpo físico, sino también uno con una apariencia sensual. Al hacerlo, Lilith se estableció como un catalizador de varias de las principales ansiedades victorianas a través de su creciente transformación y desconcierto.

Faust y Lilith (Faust se prepara para bailar un vals con la joven bruja en el Festival de los magos y las brujas en las montañas Hartz). Richard Westall. Óleo sobre lienzo. 1831. Cortesía de Langan's Restaurant, Londres.

Podría decirse que la primera representación de Lilith en el arte del siglo XIX fue realizada por el maestro del dibujo de la reina Victoria, Richard Westall, en la representación del encuentro entre Fausto y una seductora Lilith en su obra Fausto y Lilith (1831). En este cuadro, Lilith tenía todos los rasgos de una rosa inglesa, con su piel blanca como una azucena, cabello rojo, rasgos finos y cuerpo voluptuoso inclinado hacia Fausto lo cautiva con la delicadeza de sus rasgos y las curvas de su cuerpo en medio de una escena de libertinaje. Más allá de la belleza, Fausto falla fatalmente al ver el rostro de Satanás frunciendo el ceño, y la pequeña serpiente arrastrándose hacia él, esta representación de Lilith encarna la tentación sensual en su forma más pura, ya que deja a Fausto ciego a cualquier otra cosa que no sea el ideal femenino. Por primera vez, Lilith perdió por completo su lado bestial, porque la serpiente está presente en la pintura pero no como parte de su anatomía. Ella es completamente humana y humana, de apariencia virginal pero mortalmente atractiva.

La importancia de la hermandad prerrafaelita en el establecimiento de Lilith como un icono victoriano

Después de la gloriosa presentación de Westall, Lilith tuvo que esperar casi medio siglo para reaparecer en la escena victoriana y ser establecida como un ícono por la Hermandad Prerrafaelita Victoriana, un grupo creativo y disidente que surgió de los círculos artísticos de la Real Academia. a finales de la década de 1840. Con Dante Gabriel Rossetti, John Everett Millais y William Holman Hunt en su núcleo fundador, la Hermandad fundó su base en la creencia de que el arte estaba destinado a ser moral, innovador, políticamente reformista y debería seguir a los maestros de la pintura anteriores y posteriores. hasta Raphael (Barringer, Rosenfeld, Smith 9). Los temas bíblicos, mitológicos y literarios prevalecieron y fueron preferidos entre el grupo, y más particularmente las figuras femeninas de esas narraciones. Proserpina, Beatrice Portinari, Salomé, Ofelia, la Dama de Shalott y figuras femeninas más fuertes han sido el tema de las suaves y brillantes pinceladas de pintura al óleo de la Hermandad Prerrafaelita.

Lady Lilith. Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Óleo sobre lienzo. 1873. Cortesía del Museo de Arte de Delaware.

Rossetti, uno de sus miembros más destacados, se sintió atraído por la obra de Goethe y estableció a Lilith como un icono victoriano mediante lo que podría considerarse una obsesión verdaderamente creativa. Su pintura Lady Lilith presenta una representación voluptuosa y en tonos cálidos de la súcubo cepillando su cabello cobrizo, un halo de exuberante flora que la rodea. Su belleza diáfana solo puede indicar la influencia de la pintura de Westall en esta figura, pero a diferencia de la primera imagen, esta imagen de Lilith parece más sugerente, ya que su sensualidad solo se revela al enfocar su hombro desnudo, enfatizado por su cuerpo completamente vestido. La pieza central del cuadro es sin duda su cabello, la encarnación de una peligrosidad y sensualidad que abraza: de hecho, el peine y el espejo son el punto focal, afirmando sus inclinaciones narcisistas y orientadas al cuerpo. Los elementos notables que enmarcan la pintura merecen ser destacados: las rosas blancas que rodean su cabello como un halo se han asociado más comúnmente con las ideas simbólicas de belleza virginal, pureza e inocencia, mientras que las amapolas en sus codos se han utilizado ancestralmente para la extracción. de opio mortal. La asociación de estas dos metáforas establece un contraste entre lo inocente y lo letal, y agrega ambivalencia al personaje que se encuentra en algún lugar entre la nobleza (Rossetti la ennoblece con el título de 'Dama') y el descrédito.

Rossetti también se refirió a la belleza de lo corpóreo en su soneto "La belleza del cuerpo", compuesto en 1881, en paralelo con su pintura para ofrecer una representación interdisciplinaria de su Lilith:

De la primera esposa de Adán, Lilith, se dice
(La bruja que amaba antes del regalo de Eva)
Que, antes de la serpiente, su dulce lengua podría engañar,
Y su cabello encantado fue el primer oro.
Y todavía está sentada, joven mientras la tierra es vieja,
Y, sutilmente contemplativa de sí misma,
Atrae a los hombres a mirar la telaraña brillante que puede tejer,
Hasta que el corazón, el cuerpo y la vida estén en su poder.
La rosa y la amapola son sus flores para donde
¿No se ha encontrado, oh Lilith, a quien derramó el olor
¿Y los suaves besos y el suave sueño atraparán?
¡Lo! como los ojos de ese joven ardían en los tuyos, así se fue
Tu hechizo lo atravesó, y dejó su cuello recto doblado
Y alrededor de su corazón un cabello dorado estrangulado.

Este soneto encarna todas las ambivalencias del personaje pintado, se vuelven a tocar los temas de la amapola y la rosa, así como la importancia y énfasis en el cabello de Lilith como su arma seductora. Se la representa como una bruja haciendo alarde de su lengua de reptil entre "besos suaves". Sin embargo, Lilith aparece más abiertamente mortal en el soneto, ya que toma la vida de un joven cautivado en las dos últimas líneas, perpetuando su reputación de mujer fatal. En una carta a su amigo el Dr. Hacke en 1870, Rossetti se refirió a su soneto pictórico como la representación de una 'Lilith moderna' (Allen 286). Esta modernidad, según Virginia M. Allen, tuvo una influencia duradera en la nueva representación de Lilith para una audiencia moderna: “Rossetti pudo haber profundizado en su amplia memoria para la imagen de Goethe, pero su implicación con la forma fue perenne. Fue con este trabajo que la imagen recibió una nueva etiqueta, y el mortal demonio nocturno del folclore judío recibió una nueva forma ”(291). Por lo tanto, esta pintura fue un hito definitorio para la representación, la apreciación y la evolución de Lilith, ya que se volvió aún más hermosa y ambivalente, y por lo tanto más amenazante.

Lilith. John Collier. Óleo sobre lienzo. 1887. Cortesía de Atkinson Art Gallery.

El trabajo de Rossetti inspiró a otro artista victoriano, John Collier, a pintar una de sus piezas más famosas, Lilith, en 1887. Su Lilith tiene un parecido sorprendente con el estilo prerrafaelita de Rossetti, con su delicioso cabello rojo, rostro angelical descansando (renderizado en temple técnica de pintura), sin embargo, parece más amenazadora sexualmente. Una serpiente está envuelta alrededor de su cuello desnudo, caderas y piernas, suavemente cepillada por su largo cabello. En un movimiento de seducción, revela su cuello a la serpiente, sus colmillos aparentemente listos para hundirla en el engaño o en la confianza. El contraste entre su cuerpo blanco claro y la oscuridad que la rodea difunde una sensación de pavor e inquietud, ya que la fragilidad de la delicada joven esconde un tono más oscuro. De la misma manera que Lilith de Westall, su seductora desnudez "no es demasiado lasciva, y Lilith se presenta como una imagen de belleza idealizada, que es tanto realista como contemporánea". De hecho, a Lilith se le volvió a dar un toque moderno, ya que se adaptó a los ideales de belleza británicos victorianos, de manera similar a Lady Lilith de Rossetti, con su largo cabello rojo, piel pálida y figura curvilínea.

Siguiendo la tradición de Westall, Lilith se estableció seguramente dentro de la iconografía victoriana gracias a las pinturas de Rossetti y Collier, ya que en ambas pinturas ella representó la ansiogénica belleza dicotómica que rodea al cuerpo femenino victoriano, tanto en su virginal como en tentador esplendor. Ambos artistas prerrafaelitas ofrecieron una versión moderna de Lilith y reevaluaron la peligrosa feminidad del personaje, incluso si la serpiente todavía está presente, se separa de ella en un sentido corpóreo y se presenta como un ideal británico estético sin ambigüedades. Su ambigüedad pasó de ser una serpiente humana a una virgen tentadora, ya que su peligrosidad se volvió más subyugada pero igual de fuerte.

Una visión en evolución de la feminidad y la feminidad.

Esta percepción cambiante de un personaje tan dominante como Lilith en una representación moderna y atractiva se apoderó de las artes victorianas a medida que la condición de la mujer estaba cambiando drásticamente. Al comienzo de la era victoriana, las demandas de la era industrial necesitaban que las mujeres participaran en el trabajo, pero estaban confinadas a los roles domésticos en el hogar, y su estatus social solo se valoraba por su relación con un pariente masculino, ya que no tenían al derecho a poseer propiedades o votar. Roderick F. McGillis analizó "las limitaciones de la vida doméstica victoriana donde las mujeres afortunadas se casaban y se criaban, las menos afortunadas encontraban puestos como cocineras, institutrices o sirvientas, y las menos afortunadas se iban a la calle" (McGillis 3). Sin embargo, a principios de la década de 1880, la imagen de la Mujer Nueva, una mujer victoriana emancipada, libre e intelectual comenzó a emerger en la sociedad inglesa, a la luz del auge del movimiento sufragista y la feminización de la educación y el trabajo ( Diniejko). Feministas intelectuales como la Sra. Wolstenholme Elmy y su aliada y amiga Emmeline Pankhurst se convirtieron en las figuras principales de un orden social cambiante, defendiendo el empoderamiento femenino y el amor libre a través del sufragio a fines del siglo XIX. El fin de siècle se convirtió en un período clave para el avance del feminismo, ya que se alcanzaron hitos importantes para la mejora y evolución de la condición femenina. En 1869, nueve mujeres se presentaron al "Examen general para mujeres" en Londres, y seis de ellas se convirtieron en las primeras mujeres en acceder a la educación universitaria en Inglaterra (Carter). Lilith, la devoradora de niños y tentadora sexual, llegó a representar de manera metafórica y exagerada esta nueva visión de la feminidad, entre el empoderamiento femenino y el peligro para la estructura social y familiar tradicional. Como lo expresa Virginia M. Allen: "Ella representa a la Mujer Nueva, libre del control masculino, flagelo de la familia victoriana patriarcal" (Allen, 286). La imagen de la tentadora libre todavía estaba en el centro del personaje, su figura seductora y tentadora, ojos de dormitorio y cabello delicioso seguían siendo los rasgos del peligro sexual, encajándola en la etiqueta de la femme fatale castradora, a medio camino entre la "Loca en el ático ”y la“ mujer nueva ”.

Sin embargo, la ansiedad que Lilith suscitó dentro de la sociedad victoriana no solo puede atribuirse a que encarnaba a la nueva mujer victoriana Lilith provocó una angustia incómoda por su trascendencia de las etiquetas femeninas. Representada en escenas muy íntimas y tranquilas -desnuda, peinándose frente a un espejo- y con los rasgos de una tradicional dama inglesa, las pinturas muestran a Lilith como una mujer estéticamente domesticada y pura que parece quedarse en casa, con su lirio- piel blanca, su apariencia física emana un aura inmaculada, a diferencia de las representaciones monstruosas y ansiogénicas del pasado. Este conflicto estético ha sido identificado por Nina Auerbach: "Puede que no sea sorprendente que los demonios femeninos tengan un parecido inquietante con sus contrapartes angelicales, aunque las características que están sugestivamente implícitas en el ángel cobran fuerza en el demonio" (Auerbach 75). Aunque representada como un monstruo en el Talmud, ahora aparece como una mujer de buena reputación en las artes inglesas. La tensión no resuelta entre el atractivo de una mujer respetable y la abyecta atracción de una tentadora sin duda desconcertó al público victoriano.

Esta representación de Lilith como influencia en la literatura victoriana de fin de siglo

Además del arte pictórico victoriano, Lilith se abrió camino en las líneas de algunos de los mejores autores británicos. Entre ellos, Robert Browning y George Macdonald posiblemente entregaron las representaciones literarias más brillantes de Lilith.

En 1883, Robert Browning compuso "Adam, Lilith and Eve":

Un día, tronó y se iluminó.
Dos mujeres, bastante asustadas,
Cayó de rodillas, transformado, paralizado,
A los pies del hombre que estaba sentado entre
Y "¡Misericordia!" gritaron cada uno - "si digo la verdad
¡De un pasaje en mi juventud! "

Dijo esto: "¿Te importa la mañana?
¿Conocí tu amor con desprecio?
Mientras lo peor del veneno dejaba mis labios,
Pensé: 'Si, a pesar de esta mentira. se desnuda
La máscara de mi alma con un beso - me arrastro
¡Su esclavo, alma, cuerpo y todo! '"

Dijo que: "Estábamos para casarnos
El sacerdote, o alguien, se detuvo
¿Si la puerta del Paraíso está cerrada? te sonrió.
Pensé, mientras asentía, sonriendo también,
'¿Llegó uno, que está lejos, ni tarde
¡Ni pronto debería abrir la puerta del infierno! '"

Dejó de iluminarse y tronar.
Empezó a ambos maravillados,
Miró a su alrededor y vio que el cielo estaba despejado
Luego se echó a reír "¡Confiesa que nos creíste, querida!"
"¡Vi a través de la broma!" respondió el hombre.
Se volvieron a sentar al lado.

Presenta la primera instancia de una amistad unida entre Lilith y Eva, ya que se presentan por primera vez como "dos mujeres", hablando las mismas palabras a su Adán. Es la representación más comprensiva y menos amenazante de la demonio que jura que "lo peor del veneno salió de mis labios", mientras profesa su amor desesperado por Adam, y no tiene sentimientos crueles hacia la pareja original. De hecho, se nos presenta una oposición cambiante, ya que Lilith y Eva parecen formar una pareja frente a Adán, en contraste con la pareja canónica de Adán y Eva contra Lilith. Browning no restringió su descripción de ella con una mera descripción física: profundizó en su interpretación del personaje, describiendo la desesperación de una mujer amorosa: 'Me arrastro / Su esclava, ¡alma, cuerpo y todo!'

La obra maestra de George Macdonald de 1895, Lilith, vuelve a una representación más tradicional de Lilith, con sus rasgos canónicos demoníacos. La novela cuenta la historia del Sr. Vane, un bibliotecario graduado de Oxford que descubre el pasaje a un universo paralelo donde reside su padre con la ayuda de un fantasma, el Sr. Raven. Allí, conoce a Lilith, la Reina del Infierno, que lo seduce. Ella sigue siendo una seductora y reaparece como la asesina de niños que es. El lector conoce a su hija Lona, a quien acaba matando, antes de ser llevada a la Casa de la Muerte. Una vez más, Lilith aparece como una mujer fatal, agobiada por la incomodidad que provocó en el público: “una característica de MacDonald's Lilith es la piedad y repulsión simultáneas que atrae. Lilith tiene todos los ingredientes de la mujer fatal como se describe en La agonía romántica de Mario Praz: es atemporal, sabia, atribulada y pálida ”(McGillis 8). MacDonald también repitió un episodio talmúdico en el capítulo "A la casa de la amargura", cuando el Sr. Vane es aplastado por el peso de Lilith mientras ella se posa sobre él: 'Vino un viento frío con un aguijón ardiente - Lilith estaba sobre mí' (Macdonald 85), una imagen que demuestra el poder de Lilith, ya que finalmente logra tener la posición dominante sobre un hombre.

Además de la obra maestra de MacDonald, varios autores se inspiraron para infundir el peligro de Lilith en la caracterización de sus protagonistas. Entre ellos, destacan la novela Lilith de Walter Herries Pollock, publicada en 1874 en las páginas de El templo, y El alma de Lilith, escrita en 1895 por Marie Corelli. En ambas novelas, dos mujeres llamadas Lilith (sin ninguna afiliación directa a nuestra demonio) conducen a la destrucción y decadencia de los protagonistas masculinos con el atractivo de sus vampiros. Estos dos sucesos muestran cómo Lilith finalmente se incorporó a la corriente principal, ya que la mera mención de su nombre podría provocar reverencial temor y terror en los ojos de los lectores victorianos, y proyectar una serie de características predeterminadas a nuevos personajes.

Lilith como la encarnación de los miedos victorianos

En una época de transición de descubrimientos científicos dramáticos, avances filosóficos y psiquiátricos y modernización, una sociedad victoriana tradicionalmente cristiana sufrió grandes conflictos internos que surgieron notablemente a través del personaje de Lilith, de hecho, demostró ser una fuente de ansiedad mucho más allá de su feminidad seductora y dominante, destrozando las expectativas morales de una sociedad conservadora.

Si el personaje de Lilith encendió inconscientemente las pasiones y la angustia de la audiencia victoriana, podría decirse que se debe en gran parte a su naturaleza extranjera, que ha sido muy poco estudiada e identificada en un contexto victoriano. Lilith, o לילית en hebreo, sigue siendo un exótico personaje talmúdico que, al igual que Drácula, se dirigió a Gran Bretaña para seducir a los hombres británicos y comprometer el ideal de la "británica". De hecho, el judaísmo se convirtió en una entidad espiritual y extranjera significativa en la Gran Bretaña victoriana, ya que 'el número de judíos en Gran Bretaña aumentó de 60.000 en 1880 a 300.000 en 1914, como resultado de los inmigrantes que escaparon de la persecución en Rusia y Europa del Este' (English Heritage), con una comunidad especialmente importante en East London. De demonio judío informe, Lilith realizó una metamorfosis en los rasgos de una rosa inglesa seductora, sin dejar de ser el Otro hebraico. Por lo tanto, se destaca como un hecho excepcional en las artes victorianas, como Jon Thompson identificó que 'una vez que los individuos son designados como “otros” culturales en virtud de ser extranjeros [. ] apenas se caracterizan en absoluto o solo se manejan de la manera más estereotipada '(Thompson 69) de hecho, Lilith escapó del casillero de las representaciones victorianas tradicionales del "judío villano", mientras ocultaba su naturaleza extraña en el cuerpo de un británico señora. Se puede argumentar que esta representación fue un ejemplo de blanqueo, sin embargo, sin duda permitió el desarrollo de su yo multifacético a través de su capacidad para adaptarse a diferentes públicos. Su alteridad se hizo más maleablemente peligrosa por su recién descubierta británica.

Como demonio de la trascendencia, Lilith demostró ser un personaje incómodo para la Gran Bretaña victoriana, ya que trascendió su papel religioso original para convertirse en un ícono cultural secular y profano. De hecho, como explica Nina Auerbach, "en la Inglaterra victoriana, una época poseída por la fe pero privada de dogma, cualquier incursión de lo sobrenatural en lo natural se volvió ambiguamente espantoso porque inclasificable" (75). El mayor atractivo de Lilith y su presencia constante en las artes victorianas podría haber surgido de un cristianismo en ruinas y su transición de los textos religiosos a piezas seculares del origen bíblico de la humanidad recientemente impugnado, desestabilizado por la teoría de la evolución de 1859 de Charles Darwin. De hecho, "el hombre a quien generalmente se le atribuye el mérito de haber causado dudas en las mentes de los cristianos victorianos es Charles Darwin" (Escocia 1), aunque de hecho los geólogos, lingüistas y eruditos bíblicos lo habían hecho décadas antes. Todos estos factores plantearon "dudas sobre si Dios, mediante actos especiales, había creado el mundo y las criaturas que lo poblaban". Por lo tanto, muchos en Inglaterra intentaron encontrar respuestas en creencias alternativas `` a medida que las viejas certezas se derrumbaron, surgieron nuevas religiones, como el espiritismo, establecido en Inglaterra en la década de 1850, y la teosofía, que se basó en el budismo y el hinduismo '' (herencia inglesa). Lilith fue testigo activo de la disolución de la hegemonía cristiana hacia una iconografía más laica, inconformista e incluso sobrenatural.

Por lo tanto, Lilith despertó sentimientos de ansiedad en la época victoriana cuando encarnó la destrucción de los cimientos de una sociedad tradicional y se convirtió en el testimonio de una sociedad victoriana en un estado de cambio intelectual y social.

Conclusión

Lilith. Althea Gyles. Ilustración de The Dome I (octubre-diciembre de 1898): 235.

La última aparición de Lilith en las artes victorianas podría haber sido la ilustración de Althea Gyles de la revista The Dome. Gyles representa a Lilith con su look característico canónico: la desnudez, la rosa y la serpiente. Sin embargo, sus largos mechones fueron recortados a una sacudida corta, el elemento rebelde de su cabello todavía está presente, pero ha cambiado a un contexto de principios del siglo XX, cuando los mechones cortos demostraron ser más disidentes que el cabello largo. Las pinceladas cuidadosamente mezcladas de las técnicas de pintura al óleo prerrafaelitas fueron abandonadas en favor de líneas nítidas en blanco y negro modernas y un estilo Art Nouveau, continuando adaptando a Lilith para un nuevo siglo con una relevancia intacta pero en evolución.

A través de su representación cambiante en las artes pictóricas y literarias victorianas, la figura de Lilith demostró ser una representación icónica de muchos temores victorianos. Su atractivo sexualmente dominante ha sido analizado como un golpe castrador y feminista durante un período en el que el papel de la mujer cambió enormemente, pero el examen de la identidad británica que provocó fue un elemento catártico para el público anglosajón. El surgimiento de las representaciones victorianas de Lilith es, por lo tanto, la historia de la redención de un demonio que, a través de las obras de artistas que entendieron la complejidad y la belleza de su historia, la transformó en un ícono de transgresión progresiva en una sociedad victoriana cambiante.

Bibliografía

Allen, Virginia M. "'One Strangling Golden Hair': Lady Lilith de Dante Gabriel Rossetti". The Art Bulletin. Nueva York: CAA. 1984

Auerbach, Nina. La mujer y el demonio: la vida de un mito victoriano. Cambridge: Prensa de la Universidad de Harvard. mil novecientos ochenta y dos

Barringer, Tim, Jason Rosenfeld y Alison Smith. Prerrafaelita: vanguardia victoriana. Londres: Tate Publishing, 2012

Browning, Robert. “Adán, Lilith y Eva”. El Proyecto Lilith. 1883. Web. Consultado el 14 de abril de 2019.

Carter, Philip. “Las primeras mujeres en la universidad: recordando 'los Nueve de Londres'”. Los rankings universitarios mundiales. 28 de enero de 2018. Web. Consultado el 15 de agosto de 2019.

Diniajko, Andrzej. “La ficción de la mujer nueva”. La web victoriana. 17/12/2011. Web. Consultado el 15 de abril de 2019.

Gorrell, Robert M. ¿Qué hay en una palabra ?: Chismes etimológicos sobre algunas palabras interesantes en inglés. Reno: Prensa de la Universidad de Nevada. 2001

Macdonald, George. Lilith. Gran Bretaña: Plataforma de publicación independiente CreateSpace. 1895

McGillis, Roderick F. “George MacDonald y la leyenda de Lilith en el siglo XIX”. Mythlore: un diario de J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams y Mythopoeic Literature. 6.1 (1979): Artículo 1.

Patai, Rafael. “Lilith”. The Journal of American Folklore 77, No. 306. Cambridge: American Folklore Society. 1964

“Religion”. English Heritage . Web. Accessed 16 April 2019

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. “Body's Beauty”. 1881. Poem Hunter . Web. Accessed 17 April 2019

Scotland, Nigel. “Darwin and Doubt and the Response of the Victorian Churches”. Churchman . 100.4. (1986).

Thompson, Jon. Fiction, Crime, and Empire . Champaign: University of Illinois Press. 1993

Yeats, W. B. “A Symbolic Artist and the Coming of Symbolic Art.” The Dome 1 (1998): 233-37. Hathi Trust Digital Library . Web. 30 October 2019.


Personality [ edit | editar fuente]

Lilith is an elegant woman and sure of herself. According to Mazikeen, Lilith is a fearless woman even when she gave birth to Maze and her siblings. She's just not the "mothering" type. The way Maze describes her childhood supports this fact. Rather than nurturing and caring for her children, Lilith chose to train them to be killing and torturing machines. This is her own version of protecting them and making them strong. Because if her children are never attached to anything, they can never be abandoned or betrayed.

Lilith states that while she doesn’t have many pleasant memories of her time with Adam, she loved the Garden of Eden taking a stone from it to serve as a reminder that she doesn't need Adam or God.

After meeting Gertie and learning her motivations Lilith takes an interest in making an emotional connection with humans. However, she realizes that she can't do that while keeping her immortality, so she gave it up so she can walk alongside and understand humans.


Lilith

La palabra hebrea לִּילִית “lilith” appears only once in the Bible, in the Book of Isaiah 34:14 –

“Wild animals and wild dogs will congregate there wild goats will bleat to one another. Yes, nocturnal animals will rest there and make for themselves a nest.”

The translators of the New English Translation translate “Lilith” to mean “nocturnal animals” and had this to say in their notes –

“The precise meaning of לִּילִית (lilit) is unclear, though in this context the word certainly refers to some type of wild animal or bird. The word appears to be related to לַיְלָה (laylah, “night”). Some interpret it as the name of a female night demon, on the basis of an apparent Akkadian cognate used as the name of a demon. Later Jewish legends also identified Lilith as a demon.”

It’s true indeed that the Akkadian language did have a similar word to Lilith – “Lilu” – and it is debated if the two words are cognates or related. However, it should be noted that Lilu in the Akkadian language is a masculine word, not feminine, and seems to be a general term for “demon”. In the Sumerian king list, the father of Gilgamesh is said to be a lilu. Referring back to the verse in Isaiah, it would make sense that it is referring to some type of wild animal or bird based on the fact the verses immediately before and following verse 14 are referring to animals –

“Her fortresses will be overgrown with thorns thickets and weeds will grow in her fortified cities. Jackals will settle there ostriches will live there.” – Isaiah 34:13
“Owls will make nests and lay eggs there they will hatch them and protect them. Yes, hawks will gather there, each with its mate. Carefully read the scroll of the Lord! Not one of these creatures will be missing, none will lack a mate. For the Lord has issued the decree, and his own spirit gathers them. He assigns them their allotment he measures out their assigned place. They will live there permanently they will settle in it through successive generations.” – Isaiah 34:15-17

The evidence doesn’t support the idea that Lilith was taken or censored out of the Bible to hide the fact that she was Adam’s first wife, as she does not appear in any Biblical apocrypha works, does not appear in any pseudepigrapha works from the Biblical period, is not mentioned in any of the gospels, and she does not appear in any of the Gnostic text from the Nag Hammadi Library, all text dating from a range of the 7th Century BCE to the 2nd Century CE. In Jewish tradition dating from the 6th century CE, Lilith is mentioned in three places within the Babylonian Talmud. Though she is not mentioned as being the wife of Adam, the text does seem to suggest she was a demon. However, it’s likely this view may have been established centuries later than when any of the previous biblical and deuterocanonical text were written and be based on the idea of the Akkadian word Lilu meaning demon.

The earliest text referring to Lilith as the first wife of Adam comes from the medieval text titled The Alphabet of ben Sirach which scholars date as being written anywhere between 700 and 1000 CE. This work however was never understood as or treated as revealed or inspired scripture, rather the work was written and treated as a satire. It is from within this text alone that we are told the story of Lilith being Adam’s first wife who refused to submit to her husband.

“While God created Adam, who was alone, He said, ‘It is not good for man to be alone’ (Genesis 2:18). He also created a woman, from the earth, as He had created Adam himself, and called her Lilith. Adam and Lilith immediately began to fight. She said, ‘I will not lie below,’ and he said, ‘I will not lie beneath you, but only on top. For you are fit only to be in the bottom position, while I am to be the superior one.’ Lilith responded, ‘We are equal to each other inasmuch as we were both created from the earth.’ But they would not listen to one another. When Lilith saw this, she pronounced the Ineffable Name and flew away into the air.” – The Alphabet of ben Sirach, fifth response to King Nebuchadnezzar.

Because of Lilith refusing to submit to Adam based on the idea that she was his equal, Lilith is sometimes exalted as a women’s empowerment or feminist icon. However, it should be noted and considered that the rest of the text goes on to describe Lilith as a demoness who terrorizes pregnant women, fornicates with demons, and murders infants. The work certainly does not paint a picture of Lilith being an ally to women. As the text is indeed a work of satire, it should also be considered that the text should not be taken too seriously in it’s treatment of Adam and Lilith. To the Gnostics, Adam and his wife Eve were seen as equals, and Eve especially was given high honor as she was responsible for Adam’s awakening.

Eve represents the Divine Feminine and is the archetype Mother of all Life. She is also responsible for Adam’s (humanity’s) awakening to their true Divine Self. As the daughter of or even a manifestation of Sophia, it was Eve who brought forth the life giving Light from the upper realms of the Pleroma into the darkness of matter so that Adam (humanity) can see. Upon seeing Adam cast in darkness by the Archons, Sophia sent her daughter Eve (also called Zoe which means “life”) to be a help and instructor to Adam and to reveal to him his true Divine nature and how to ascend back into the Pleroma from where his Spirit (the breath of life that was breathed into him) came. Eve then became hidden within Adam so that Yaldabaoth and his Archons would not be aware of her. While Adam laid dormant in the darkness he was thrown in, Eve spoke to him from within and said “Adam! Come alive! Arise upon the Earth!” Adam then sprang to life once again, and upon seeing the form of Eve said “You shall be called ‘Mother of the Living’. For it is you who have given me life.”

While the Biblical text says that Eve was created from the rib of Adam, the Gnostic text demonstrates that this was a lie told in order to suppress the Divine Feminine principle and it’s role.

“Then the authorities were informed that their modeled form was alive and had arisen, and they were greatly troubled. They sent seven archangels to see what had happened. They came to Adam. When they saw Eve talking to him, they said to one another, “What sort of thing is this luminous woman? For she resembles that likeness which appeared to us in the light. Now come, let us lay hold of her and cast her seed into her, so that when she becomes soiled she may not be able to ascend into her light. Rather, those whom she bears will be under our charge. But let us not tell Adam, for he is not one of us. Rather let us bring a deep sleep over him. And let us instruct him in his sleep to the effect that she came from his rib, in order that his wife may obey, and he may be lord over her.”

Then Eve, being a force, laughed at their decision. She put mist into their eyes and secretly left her likeness with Adam.” – On the Origin of the World

Having slipped away to be alone in the Garden of Eden, Eve was approached by the Serpent, though the exchange in the Gnostic texts is slightly different than the biblical version.

“And when he saw the likeness of their mother Eve he said to her, “What did God say to you? Was it ‘Do not eat from the tree of knowledge’?” She said, “He said not only, ‘Do not eat from it’, but, ‘Do not touch it, lest you die.'” He said to her, “Do not be afraid. In death you shall not die. For he knows that when you eat from it, your intellect will become sober and you will come to be like gods, recognizing the difference that obtains between evil men and good ones. Indeed, it was in jealousy that he said this to you, so that you would not eat from it.” Now Eve had confidence in the words of the instructor. She gazed at the tree and saw that it was beautiful and appetizing, and liked it she took some of its fruit and ate it and she gave some also to her husband, and he too ate it. Then their intellect became open. For when they had eaten, the light of knowledge had shone upon them.” – On the Origin of the World

As you can see, Eve was Adam’s (and therefore, humanity’s) first Teacher, raising Adam up from the darkness of ignorance into the Light of Knowledge. She is also humanity’s first Mother, and therefore embodies the archetype of the Great Matriarch. Eve should never be thought of as being naive, submissive, or the blame for the Fall of Man in the way the Judeo-Christian religions have treated her with their Bible. It’s actually quite the opposite, and she should be honored as the Raising Up of Man. The Gnostics have always felt that we are greatly indebted to the Original Woman, who embodies the archetype of Sophia (Wisdom).

To read the Gnostic text for yourself, check out On the Origin of the World & The Apocryphon of John

An excerpt of The Alphabet of ben Sirach concerning Lilith is on Wikipedia.

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Who was Lillith / Lilith? Did Adam have another wife before Eve?

Lilith is a mythological character purported to have been Adam's first wife. The Bible contains no such account nor even hints at such a possibility. According to the legend, Lilith was headstrong and independent, and didn't want to submit to Adam, so she divorced him. How the Lilith legend came to be is a circuitous tale on its own.

The legend of Lilith originated in the last chapter of the Epic of Gilgamesh—a chapter which was probably not original to the rest of the text. In the story, the goddess Inanna finds a tree in a river and plants it in her garden. She cares for it for ten years, but finds that it's been infested with "the serpent who could not be charmed," "the Anzu-bird," and "the dark maid Lilith." Inanna cannot get rid of the squatters, so she asks her brother Gilgamesh. He strikes the serpent, leading the Anzu-bird to flee with its young and Lilith to smash her home and escape to "the wild, uninhabited places." Gilgamesh chops up the tree and makes a throne and a bed for Inanna.

The Aleppo National Museum is in possession of an amulet with the engraving of a sphinx and a she-wolf that includes the words "O, Demoness-that-flies in a dark chamber, Get on your way at once, O Lili!" The amulet is thought to be Syrian, from the 6th or 7th century BC, but it's also possible it's a forgery from the 1930s.

It's possible that the Bible references Lilith as a pagan character. Isaiah 34:14 reads, "And wild animals shall meet with hyenas the wild goat shall cry to his fellow indeed, there the night bird settles and finds for herself a resting place." The night bird (some translations say "screech owl") is the Hebrew Liyliyth. It is derived from layil, which means "night." "Lilith," literally, means "night maid," so it's unclear if the verse refers to the Sumerian goddess or if it's a poetic way to describe a female nocturnal bird.

Some argue for Lilith's existence by pointing to the seeming conflict between Genesis 1 and 2. In Genesis 1:27, God creates male and female. But Genesis 2:18–25 tells the story of the creation of Eve. In truth, Genesis 1 is a synopsis of the six days of creation while Genesis 2 gives more detail into the sixth day when God created Adam and Eve. But many people misinterpret the timeline and think the chapters are straight chronology. Genesis 1:27, they say, refers to Lilith.

Extra-biblical writings of Judaism hold to this account. The midrash Genesis Rabba (AD 300—500) infers that Adam had a first wife. The Babylonian Talmud says that Lilith has wings, that she can cause birth defects, that she is a succubus, and that she used the nocturnal emissions of sleeping men to conceive demon babies. The first text that clearly connects Lilith as Adam's first wife is The Alphabet of Ben Sira. In this text, Lilith is said to have left Adam when he demanded she be submissive in sex. When Adam asked angels to bring her back, she said she wouldn't. The angels told her they would kill her demon children, so she responded that she would in turn kill the babies of the descendants of Adam.

Further legend says that she is responsible for diphtheria, stillborn children, and babies who die of SIDS. It was a short leap to go from Lilith as "night maid" to "night hag," and blame her for sleep paralysis. Some, including Michelangelo, associate her with the serpent that tempted Eve. In this incarnation, she is the wife of Satan and provides the body so that he can be the voice that talks to Eve.

More recently, feminists and New Agers have claimed Lilith as a role model. They praise her independence and sexual freedom and use her as an example when refusing to submit to their husbands. She has leant her name to "Lilith Fair," a touring concert of female singers and female-led bands, and Lilith Magazine, a Jewish feminist magazine.

The only verified part of all this is that Lilith was a character in ancient Sumerian/Akkadian folk lore. Any "evidence" found in the Bible is easily dismissed. The bulk of literature defining her role in history comes from Kabbalah—a Jewish-based cult. In short, Lilith was a figure of ancient mythology who has since been used to represent death to innocents, sexual predation on men, and feminist independence. She was never real, and she certainly was never married to Adam.


Historia

The mythical figure of the ‘dark goddess’ Lilith—a symbol of the independent, rebellious, sensual, courageous, passionate, rageful potential in us all–has been as much a source of inspiration as she has been a flame igniting my curiosity since I was first introduced to her in 1985. For this, I thank an extraordinary teacher, Rabbi Bernard M. Zlotowitz of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in New York.

According to Jewish legend, Lilith was Adam’s first wife and Eve’s predecessor. In the most commonly-told version of the tale, she is made from the earth, as is Adam. For this reason, she refuses to lie beneath Adam sexually, and when he insists, she mutters God’s secret name, leaves the Garden of Eden and Adam, and flies off to the Reed Sea [today called the Red Sea] to live her own life. After Adam complains to God about being alone and Eve comes into the picture, we learn—in traditional patriarchal recountings—that she is warned against the ‘evil’ Lilith and feels Lilith is a rival competing for Adam’s affections. In a contemporary feminist midrash or reinterpretation of this legend by Judith Plaskow, however, we see Lilith painted as Eve’s counterpart, confidante and friend (Womanspirit Rising, 1979).

Lilith is consistently portrayed in many cultures first as a demon, who might have been good or bad, then as a child-killer and temptress as a woman embodying or representing the devil and often personified by Eden’s serpent. In literary and iconographic representations, she is clearly depicted as symbolizing the “evil” inherent in all women. Yet many contemporary women see in her the embodiment of the Goddess, Great Creatrix, Queen of Heaven and Earth, Goddess of Love and War, designations she shares with her counterparts Inanna, Ishtar, Asherah, Anath and Isis. As a goddess of love, beauty and things erotic she is akin to the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus in her wildness and thirst for justice she and Bhadra Kali, the Hindu goddess, could be thought of as sisters. The question of how bloodthirsty she may or may not be—and whether the role of avenger is a positive or negative one—remains an open one. There is also the question, which has gone largely unexplored, of the royal or divine status which may be signified by her serpentine crown and the rings she holds, usually recognized as symbolizing Sumerian royal authority. “She also holds the ring and rod of power. Thus she joins the first rank of gods” (Johnson, 1988).

Lucia Chiavola Birnbaum, in her landmark work Black Madonnas (1993), calls Adam’s treatment of Lilith “the first violence done to women”. If one reads this as rape, as some writers do (Philips, 1984 Ostriker, 1993), one begins to view the Garden of Eden as more prison than paradise. No wonder, then, that Lilith left Adam and Eden in so doing–as Aviva Cantor wrote in the first issue of LILITH Magazine (1972)—Lilith chose loneliness over subservience.

The patriarchy’s treatment of Lilith has been similar to its treatment of Eve. Both have been demonized – Lilith for her independence and open sexuality, and Eve for her quest for knowledge.

We can trace Lilith’s development through both art and text through mythological as well as talmudic, pseudepigraphic and apocryphal sources. They include: the 3rd millenium story of Gilgamesh and the Huluppu Tree a 2400 BCE text referring to a Sumerian storm demon the famous terracotta relief of Lilith known as the Burley plaque from circa 2300 BCE in Babylonian legends dating from roughly 1800 BC in Aramaic incantation texts found in bowls around 600 CE in Nippur, Babylonia (Iraq), Arslan Tash (Syria) and Persia (Iran) in Rabbinic literature, midrashim and folklore from the 5th to the 12th Centuries CE, in 15th and 16th Century European sculpture and woodcuts, in Kabbalistic sources beginning in the 12th and appearing through the 17th Century CE, in literature carrying her through to the present day. The only actual Biblical reference to Lilith or ‘the liliths’ is in the Hebrew Bible (Isaiah 34:14) whether or not it truly represents this mysterious figure is a matter of conjecture.

I find Lilith, as both symbol and mythological figure, endlessly fascinating. When I first learned of her I was in corporate life when I returned to school to pursue an MA degree, she rapidly became the focus of my thesis: “Lilith as Everywoman in Ancient Text & Modern Midrash: Transforming a Demonized Eros”. Whichever legends about her one chooses to believe, for me she symbolizes both the best and the worst in women (and men), and shows us the desirable, mysterious, pro/creative, regenerative and healing powers of the dark or unknown as well as the socially unacceptable or amoral attributes of ‘the dark’.


How Lilith The First Wife of Adam became Demon

As we all know, According to the Bible the first couple of human being created by God were Adam and Eve. But an Ancient Jewish myth contests that Eve was not the first woman that created by God. This myth states that before Eve there was another woman whose name was Lilith. Have you ever think then why and How Lilith The First Wife of Adam became Demon? why God demonized Lilith?

How Lilith, Adam and Eve born

As we know Eve came from one of Adam’s rib but Lilith emerged from clay along with Adam. Since she was created by God in the same way as Adam was created. She thought that she was equal to Her Husband Adam. Hence Lilith did not submit to her husband’s commands and did not accept Adams domination.

Where were Lilith and Eve live?

Lilith and Adam inhabited the “Garden of Eden”. But Lilith’s rebellion put her in a situation where she was forced to choose between submitting to her husband or leaving the “Garden of Eden.” At that time Lilith was not willing to give up her independence. Therefore she opted to leave Adam and the Garden of Eden behind.

Lilith the first woman ever created by God went into exile and settled herself near the Red Sea. God sent Angels in an attempt to convince Lilith to return to the “Garden of Eden” but she turned her back on God.

Why God Created Eve?

Adam started to feel lonely without his wife Lilith. God After seeing that Adam was struggling with loneliness decided to create a new woman for him and then he created Eve.

Why God demonized Lilith (How Lilith The First Wife of Adam became Demon)

Lilith was demonized by God due to her decision to reject the Creator of Universe. she was now considered a woman shaped demon. In her demonic shape Lilith have the power to instigate disease in newborn children. To protect children from evil the babies were given amulets with the names of the angels who tried to take Lilith back to Eden.

Some stories affirmed that Lilith was jealous of the happy life Adam and Eve led in Paradise. Hence, As an act of revenge she assumed shape of a serpent and tricked Eve forcing her and Adam to taste the forbidden fruit which caused the couple to be expelled from the Paradise.

Myth of Lilith in other Civilization

Lilith story is quite well known yet this version is not present in the Christian Bible. It is rejected by both Catholics and Protestants. The version in which she would have been
Adams first wife is found SIRACH Alphabet text.
The date of the writings is unknown but it is believed that they were created already in the
Medieval Era. The myth of Lilith is found in Hebrew, Babylonian, Sumerian and, Assyrian Mythology.
The figure of Lilith in Mesopotamia was seen as an evil deity. And when associated with the moon she was regarded as a goddess with different phases and therefore different
moods. That way she could be seen as a “Fertility Goddess” but also as a devilish
figure.

Why Lilith absent from Bible?

There are theories that state that Lilith absence from the Bible was created during the counsels that defined the canonical books that would constitute the Bible as we know it today.

Lilith was first Feminist

The figure of Lilith as an independent and strong woman will go against the patriarchal structure one of the cornerstones of the Judeo-Christian culture. For this reason Lilith was
embraced by the feminist movement. She is often regarded as the first feminist.
The movement claims that Lilith was unfairly demonized like most women in our history
who have attempted to defy the patriarchy.

Whether as a demonic figure or as a symbol of woman’s struggle. Lilith story is still the subject of much interest. What do you think about Lilith Let us know in the comment box.


Visión general

Enduring Understandings

  • Our deepest fears often reveal what is most important to us.
  • Lilith has been seen as a terrifying character for centuries, but now is often seen as an inspiring role model.
  • Creating art about women in Torah continues the millennia-old tradition of interpretation, while bringing female characters to the center of the process.

Essential Questions

  • Why is Lilith’s story important?
  • Is Lilith a demoness, a heroine, or both?
  • How does Alicia’s song contribute to our understanding of Lilith’s story?

Notes to Teacher

We encourage you to make this curriculum your own. For instance, if there isn’t time during your class period to have students sketch out their own creative interpretations, you can either leave this part out or treat it as an extension activity.

We also encourage you to include as much hevruta (partner) study as possible. If you are new to hevruta study, you can think of it as discussion between two partners who can help each other learn by challenging each other’s first impressions. Breaking the group into pairs and having them read texts out loud, rather than silently, is an essential part of hevruta study.

Lastly, when studying the Torah text, we find it helpful to have students identify every problem, difficulty, or moment of confusion they can find in the text, as if they were on a scavenger hunt. This opens up the door to midrash, the Jewish tradition of creative Torah interpretation, which imagines answers to those questions.

"We are Androgynous": Explanation of a Musical Midrash

To the extent that I experienced Judaism growing up, it was classic 80’s suburban Reform Judaism. We had Maxwell House seders and menorahs at home, and my religious education took place at a huge congregation across town from the non-Jewish suburb where I lived. This education involved a rabbi in robes, a choir behind a screen on the bimah, and a bat mitzvah where I learned to chant a few lines of Torah without learning what they meant. I am grateful to the teachers and rabbis and cantors who passed down these traditions, kept them alive in the desert of suburban Maryland, taught us the Hebrew alphabet, and declared me bat mitzvah in front of the scroll. But I burned with questions, and ached for direct contact with spiritual wisdom and exploration. I was looking for direct engagement with the sacred mysteries, not old stories about God, and so it did not occur to me to look in Judaism. Though I tasted a bit of holiness in the synagogue’s small side chapel, and felt the letters awakening something inside me, I primarily experienced the massive worship room and hectic Hebrew school classrooms as a vehicle for cultural transmission, not spiritual seeking. So I went looking elsewhere for Divinity, magic, mystery.

Not until years later, when life led me back to my Jewish heritage and I made a sort of pilgrimage to Jerusalem at age 21, did I learn that Judaism does indeed engage with the Divine directly - with the God of the Torah, and also with the darkest, most mystical forces. Now I look back and think, “Of course!”, but at the time I would have been shocked to hear that the tradition contained demonesses, amulets, and incantations. Perhaps my suburban rabbis knew these mysterious traditions, but also knew that most of their congregation was not ready to engage with them. More likely, as a side effect of integrating scientific knowledge with Torah and integrating Jews with mainstream American culture, the mystical tradition had been tossed out along with superstitions, strict observance of the commandments, and outdated ideas about a woman’s place.

When I first learned of Lilith, in a book on Jewish mysticism, I felt a thrill - as an artist and as a person. And I am not alone in my fascination. This winged demoness has continued to fly through the imaginations of women and men over cultures, centuries and continents. She has been feared as a demoness and celebrated as a symbol of female liberation and sexuality.

Politically, I love the contemporary trend of embracing and celebrating Lilith as a powerful woman, as many contemporary artists do spiritually, I am equally drawn to the amulets that pregnant and birthing women used to protect themselves against her. In these older, superstitious cultures, Lilith gives a name and a form to the deep human fears - losing a baby, or losing a husband’s love. These fears are so deep precisely because of the strength of our love they are the inverse measure of how precious life is, and how tenuous. Even at her most demonic, Lilith reflects back to us the sweetness of what we hold dear. The sexual, the familial, and the intensity of our responsibility to create and safeguard the next generation - all these twine together in her character.

When I wrote “We Are Androgynous,” I drew on the midrashic idea that Adam and Lilith (in her role as the First Eve) were created as halves of a whole, double-gendered body, described as “androgynos” in the original text’s Talmudic-Aramaic-via-Ancient-Greek.

In this telling, Lilith asserts herself to Adam as his equal. Adam, dismayed, complains to God that he cannot live with such a presumptuous woman, who thinks she is equal because she was created as part of the same being. God, sympathetic to Adam, banishes Lilith from the garden and starts over with the Eve. This time, God takes the woman from Adam’s rib (literally “side”), so that she will always know she is secondary.

“We Are Androgynous” draws on the story of Lilith and her banishment to consider love, the limitations and transcendence inherent in the human body, and the impossible-to-hold category of gender itself. Using a centuries-old instrument of the violin through the modern technology of the loop pedal echoes the mysterious swirling winds that seem to accompany Lilith through time. (If you don’t know what the loop pedal is, check out this live video.)

Like most modern progressive people, I conceive of romantic love not as a hierarchical relationship, but as the meeting of two equals. In this song, I imagine Lilith holding the same beliefs. After all, thinking she was equal to Adam was, in many interpretations, her original offense.

My Lilith is a proto-modern thinker about love, in whatever genders it manifests. My Lilith remembers being formed by the hands of God, just as Adam was. She may be banished from Eden, but she knows that one day, humans will once again believe in that first Edenic state of love, where she and Adam were two parts of a whole, distinct but equal, both shaped by the Divine. My Lilith looks forward to that day, but she has her boundaries she will not return to the Garden before it comes.


Lilith

Lilith was originally a Sumerian air or storm demon associated with infanticide, "sudden infant death syndrome", still born births, the spreading of disease, the raping of men in their sleep (nocturnal emissions) and the infliction of infertility upon couples. By circa the 8th century the character of Lilith had evolved to become the first wife of Adam in Jewish mysticism and folklore.

Apariencia: In her original appearance Lilith had a monstrous form, winged, hairy and part-animal and part-human. As the first wife of Adam, Lilith was said to be very beautiful, with long red hair. The description of red hair identified Lilith as being evil, as having red hair is believed to be a sign of evil among many Middle Eastern cultures. Such belief has also been passed on to European superstitions where having red hair was viewed as sign a person was a witch, vampire, or werewolf. To see a painting titled Lilith by John Collier, click HERE.

Lore: De acuerdo con la Alphabet of Ben Sira, Lilith was Adam's first wife. This belief comes from Genesis 1:27 in which God makes man and woman as equals versus the latter verse of Genesis 2:22 where God makes Eve out of Adam's rib and thus subservient to him.

Genesis 1:27 KJV
So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him male and female created he them.

Genesis 2:22 KJV
22 And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

In order to reconcile both accounts of creation the belief that Adam had a first wife arose. De acuerdo a Alphabet of Ben Sira, Lilith was created out of the earth as Adam was and was his equal. Problems soon developed concerning sex. Both Adam and Lilith demanded upon being the aggressor and to be "on top". Adam complained to God and God commanded Lilith to submit unto Adam and lie beneath him. This so infuriated Lilith that she pronounced the secret name of God and immediately flew up into the air in a whirlwind and left Eden. God then commanded three angels, Senoi, Sansenoi, and Sammangelof, to go search the world to find Lilith and return her to Eden. The angels found Lilith in a deserted cave where she had become the wife of Sammael and was giving birth to hundreds of demons a day. The angels ordered Lilith to return to Adam but she refused. As punishment the angels murder a hundred of her demonic children a day. Lilith told the angels that it was her job to keep humanity in check by killing babies. She then swore an oath to the angels that she would not harm any infant that wore a magical charm containing their names. As time passed Lilith eventually tried to return to Eden. In Genesis she is referred to as "the serpent" but by that time God had already created Eve as Adam's companion. Lilith, as the serpent, attempted to be rid of her new rival by attempting to trick Eve into eating the forbidden fruit. Unfortunately Lilith's plan backfired as when Eve ate the fruit she then immediately gave some of it to Adam for him to eat as well. Frustrated, Lilith raped Adam while he slept and stole his seed. She used his seed to give birth to more of her demonic offspring.

Potestades: Lilith, as a demon, possesses supernatural powers such as flight, invisibility, and shape-shifting. She is a skilled witch and seductress and men are usually powerless to resist her. Additionally, Lilith and her offspring can possess people, usually young women.

Lilin/Lilim: The Lilin/Lilim are the demonic offspring of Lilith created from Lilith's mating with Sammael as well as the semen Lilith has stolen from Adam and other human men.

Lilith & Mirrors: All mirrors are portals that lead to the cave of Lilith. Lilith and her offspring can travel anywhere in the world via mirrors. Through mirrors Lilith and her offspring can tempt, deceive, and possess mortals. Women who are possessed by Lilith or a Lilim will become vain, materialistic, promiscuous, disobedient, and will act to destroy families by seducing married men.

Defense Against Lilith: Lilith is vulnerable to magical charms meant to repel her. Some of the basic charms include the names of the three angels, Senoi, Sansenoi, and Sammangelof, as well as the phrase, "Adam and Eve, Baring Lilith". The charms are usually made for the infant to wear or to be pinned on their clothing. Charms can also be placed on the cradle. Lilith can usually only harm male infants within the first 8 days of their life. Female infants can usually be harmed within the first 20 days of life. As a spirit of the night, infants were usually safe from Lilith during daylight. Special bowls with prayers or invocations can be used to either trap Lilith or repel her. Additionally, a strong exorcism called a "divorce" can be performed which will force Lilith to flee.

Controversy Over The Burney Relief: The most popular image claimed to be Lilith may in fact not be her. You can view this image by clicking HERE. The features of the image are problematic for the portrayal of a demon and are more closer to the portrayal of a goddess. Lilith has always been a demon, never a goddess, and so many experts now believe the image is that of Innanna/Ishtar or Ereshkigal instead.

Wiccan And Neopagan Propaganda: Currently there is a trend among Wiccans and Neopagans to present a false conception of Lilith in order to promote various agendas. Though it is true that the account of Lilith found in the Alphabet of Ben Sira is mysoginistic, it should be stated that Lilith was always a demon from the start and has never been a goddess or a figure of goodness. The belief that Lilith was the first feminist is just outright wrong. She is a baby-killer and she harbors hatred and jealousy for human women, the offspring of Eve.

Lilith In The Bible: Lilith makes an appearance in the Bible in Isaiah 34:14, though in the King James Version Lilith is translated as "screech owl".

Isaiah 34:14
The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.

In the Vulgate edition of the Bible the name Lilith is falsely translated as "Lamia". Lamia is a shape-shifting serpent-woman who consumes men, while Lilith is primarily associated with the killing of babies.

King Solomon & The Queen Of Sheba: According to Arabian folklore, King Solomon first suspected that the Queen of Sheba was either Lilith or a Lilim because she had hairy legs.

Lilith As Mother Of Vampires & Witches: Since Lilith never ate of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good or Evil, she is technically immortal and cannot die, at least not until Judgement Day. As an immortal the popular belief arose that Lilith was the mother of all vampires. By mixing her blood with the blood of humans a race of "undead" beings may have been created. This belief has inspired many fiction writers to make Lilith into "the Vampire Queen". Similarly, Lilith is also sometimes claimed to be the mother of witches, the first witch in fact. This belief comes from the false identification of Lilith with the Greek goddess Hecate.

Lilith As Personification Of Crib Death: Due to Lilith's preferred method of killing babies, by strangling them in their sleep, many experts believe Lilith is the personification of "crib death" or S.I.D.S. (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome).

Lilith Among Modern Christians: Certain modern Christians believe that Lilith is the demon of abortions.

Lilith In Popular Culture: Lilith makes an appearance in many books and films. In the 1996 movie, Bordello of Blood, Lilith is portrayed as the mother of vampires. In the HBO series Sangre verdadera, Lilith is the progenitor of the vampire race. In 1996 Sarah McLachlan created Lilith Fair as a means to counteract the sexism found among concert promoters. The name Lilith was chosen based upon the false belief that Lilith was the first feminist. Lilith Fair was retired in 2011 and ended up raking in millions for charities.


Ver el vídeo: Lilith: Primera esposa de Adán Lilit - Angeles y Demonios - Mira la Historia (Mayo 2022).