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5 maneras en que Julio César usó el dinero para acumular poder

5 maneras en que Julio César usó el dinero para acumular poder

Asesor del emperador Nerón y supuesto autor de la Satiricón, Se cree que Petronio (27-66 d.C.) dijo: "¿Qué poder tiene la ley cuando solo gobierna el dinero?"

El ascenso al poder de Julio César, si bien indudablemente fue ayudado por su alta cuna y muchos logros tanto civiles como militares, se vio facilitado en gran medida, y en ocasiones obstaculizado, por su situación financiera.

Aquí hay 10 formas en que César usó el dinero para ganar poder e influencia en Roma.

El historiador y arqueólogo Simon Elliott responde a las preguntas clave que rodean a una de las figuras más convincentes de la historia: Julio César.

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1. La popularidad y los cargos políticos eran caros en Roma

César se vio obligado a abandonar España antes de que terminara su mandato, lo que lo abrió a un proceso privado por sus deudas.

2. César buscó amigos ricos para respaldar sus ambiciones.

Como resultado de su deuda, César se volvió hacia el hombre más rico de Roma (y posiblemente de la historia según algunos relatos), Marco Licinio Craso. Craso lo ayudó y pronto se convertirían en aliados.

3. En el 65 a. C. gastó una fortuna que no tenía en gladiadores.

César sabía que la popularidad se podía comprar. Ya profundamente endeudado, organizó un espectáculo de gladiadores masivo, aparentemente para honrar a su padre, que había muerto 20 años antes. Solo las nuevas leyes del Senado sobre el número de gladiadores limitaron la visualización a 320 pares de luchadores. César fue el primero en utilizar a los gladiadores como espectáculos públicos para agradar a la multitud.

4. La deuda podría ser uno de los impulsores más importantes de la carrera de César.

Sus conquistas en Galia fueron en parte motivadas económicamente. Los generales y gobernadores podían ganar grandes sumas de tributos y saqueos. Uno de sus primeros actos como dictador fue aprobar leyes de reforma de la deuda que finalmente borraron alrededor de una cuarta parte de todas las deudas.

5. El soborno lo llevó al poder

La primera prueba de poder real de César llegó como parte del Primer Triunvirato con Pompeyo y Craso. Pompeyo fue otro líder militar popular y Craso el hombre del dinero. La exitosa elección de César al consulado fue una de las más sucias que Roma había visto y Craso debió haber pagado los sobornos de César.

Este documental cuenta la historia del asesinato de Julio César en los 'Idus de marzo' en el 44 a. C. Con la Dra. Emma Southon y el profesor Marco Conti.

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La vida temprana de Julio César y el comienzo de su reinado como líder de Roma fue un viaje muy largo pero satisfactorio. Donde nació Julio César y su crianza lo influenció mucho para convertirse en el líder de Roma. Sus logros a principios de su reinado fueron de extrema importancia. César nació en Roma en una conocida familia patricia (gens Julia), que supuestamente remontaba su ascendencia a Julus, el hijo del príncipe troyano Eneas (quien según el mito era el hijo de Venus). Una leyenda bien documentada que existe es que, César nació por cesárea y, por lo tanto, se llama así, aunque se considera improbable porque en ese momento, solo se realizaba en mujeres muertas, y la madre de Julio César vivió mucho después de su muerte. Nació.

Es más probable que esta leyenda sea una creación más reciente, ya que el origen de la sección cesárea está en la palabra latina para cortar, caedo, -ere, caesus sum. César se crió en un modesto edificio de apartamentos (insula) en la Subura, un barrio de clase baja de Roma. Su familia no era rica y por la nobleza que prevalecía en ese momento, no había ningún miembro de la familia adinerado o prominente en su familia. Sin embargo, eran socialmente distinguidos ya que sus miembros eran patricios y afirmaban descender de Venus y Eneas.

Tenían conexiones políticas influyentes y estas eran conexiones útiles para sus aspiraciones políticas. La tía de César estaba casada con el líder popular Marius, y él mismo se casó con Cornelia, la hija de Cinna (una seguidora de Marius), negándose a divorciarse de ella cuando el dictador Sila lo ordenó. Estaba profundamente enamorado de su esposa y la lloró mucho cuando Cornelia murió en el 69 a. C. Después de eso, se casó por ganancias políticas aunque su elección de esposa, la nieta de Sila, Pompeya, que también era hija de Quintas Pompeyo, sorprendió a bastantes en el 67 a. C.

Cuando Sila murió, César comenzó su carrera política en el Foro de Roma como abogado, y su reputación como orador creció a pasos agigantados. También era conocido por su despiadado enjuiciamiento de ex gobernadores notorios por extorsión y corrupción. El gran orador Cicerón incluso comentó: "¿Alguien tiene la capacidad de hablar mejor que César?" Había construido relaciones sólidas con el gran general de Roma y esto era un punto a su favor. Se inclinó más hacia el lado popular que hacia los conservadores.

La rivalidad entre Pompeyo y el benefactor de César, Craso, pareció tener poco efecto en César. Craso continuó apoyando las enormes deudas de César durante los años siguientes. El soborno masivo con dinero prestado del excónsul Craso, rico e influyente, también le proporcionó el cargo políticamente importante de Pontifex Maximus en el 63 a. C. Su vida personal sufrió un revés con el fin de su matrimonio. En el 62 a. C., Clodio, un político romano y la segunda esposa de César, Pompeia, se vio envuelto en un escándalo que tuvo lugar en una fiesta religiosa en su casa, en relación con la violación de los ritos secretos de Bona Dea, y César obtuvo el divorcio, diciendo , "La esposa de César debe estar por encima de toda sospecha.

Después de haber servido en la España más lejana como procónsul en el 61 a. C., regresó a Roma en el 60 a. C., ambicioso para el consulado. Organizó una coalición, conocida como Primer Triunvirato, contra un grupo opositor muy fuerte, y estaba integrado por Pompeyo, comandante en jefe del ejército Craso, que era poderoso por ser el hombre más rico de Roma y el propio César. Pompeyo y Craso tenían una relación tensa, pero César los manipuló hábilmente para mantener el arreglo en funcionamiento. De vuelta en Roma en el 60, usó la fuerza para aprobar leyes y asumió el cargo de gobernador de la Galia.

Se casó con Calpurnia, cuyo padre Pisón fue nombrado cónsul, y Pompeyo se casó con Julia, hija de César y Cornelia. César continuó en la Galia durante ocho largos años y anexó toda la Francia y Bélgica modernas al Imperio Romano, y protegió a Roma de la posibilidad de invasiones galas. Pompeyo y Crauss estaban constantemente mordiéndose la garganta el uno al otro y César mantenía


Citas inspiradoras de Julio César

1. & # 8220Como regla general, los hombres se preocupan más por lo que pueden & # 8217t ver que por lo que pueden. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

2. & # 8220 Vine, vi, conquisté. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

3. & # 8220 En la guerra, los eventos de importancia son el resultado de causas triviales. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

4. & # 8220 Preferiría ser el primero en un pueblo que el segundo en Roma. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

5. & # 8220 Lo que deseamos, lo creemos fácilmente, y lo que nosotros pensamos, nos imaginamos que otros piensan también. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

6. & # 8220 Nadie es tan valiente que no le moleste algo inesperado. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

7. & # 8220 Los hombres en general se apresuran a creer lo que desean que sea verdad. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

9. & # 8220He vivido lo suficiente para satisfacer tanto a la naturaleza como a la gloria. & # 8221 & # 8211 Julio César

10. & # 8220 Los hombres en algún momento son dueños de sus destinos. La culpa, querido Brutus, no está en nuestras estrellas, sino en nosotros mismos, que somos subordinados ". & # 8211 Julio César


5 maneras en que Julio César usó el dinero para acumular poder - Historia

Cayo Julio César (julio de 100 a. C. - 15 de marzo de 44 a. C.) fue un general y estadista romano y un distinguido escritor de prosa latina. Desempeñó un papel fundamental en la transformación gradual de la República Romana en el Imperio Romano.

Busto de César del Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Nápoles

En el 60 a. C., César, Craso y Pompeyo formaron una alianza política que dominaría la política romana durante varios años. Sus intentos de acumular poder a través de tácticas populistas se opusieron a la élite conservadora dentro del Senado romano, entre ellos Catón el Joven con el apoyo frecuente de Cicerón. La conquista de la Galia por parte de César, completada en el 51 a. C., extendió el territorio de Roma hasta el Canal de la Mancha y el Rin. César se convirtió en el primer general romano en cruzar ambos cuando construyó un puente sobre el Rin y llevó a cabo la primera invasión de Gran Bretaña.

Estos logros le otorgaron un poder militar incomparable y amenazaron con eclipsar la posición de Pompeyo. El equilibrio de poder se alteró aún más con la muerte de Craso en el 53 a. C. Los reajustes políticos en Roma condujeron finalmente a un enfrentamiento entre César y Pompeyo, habiendo asumido este último la causa del Senado. Ordenado por el Senado para ser juzgado en Roma por varios cargos, César marchó sobre Roma con una legión (legión XIII) desde la Galia hasta Italia, cruzando el Rubicón en el 49 a. C. Esto desató una guerra civil de la que emergió como el líder incomparable del mundo romano.

Después de asumir el control del gobierno, inició amplias reformas de la sociedad y el gobierno romanos. Centralizó la burocracia de la República y finalmente fue proclamado "dictador a perpetuidad". Un grupo de senadores, encabezados por Marco Junio ​​Bruto, asesinó al dictador en los Idus de marzo (15 de marzo) del 44 a. C., con la esperanza de restaurar el gobierno constitucional de la República. Sin embargo, el resultado fue una serie de guerras civiles, que finalmente llevaron al establecimiento del Imperio Romano permanente por el heredero adoptado de César, Octavio (más tarde conocido como Augusto). Gran parte de la vida de César se conoce por sus propios relatos de sus campañas militares y otras fuentes contemporáneas, principalmente las cartas y discursos de Cicerón y los escritos históricos de Salustio. Las últimas biografías de César por Suetonio y Plutarco también son fuentes importantes.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla.


César nació en una familia patricia, la gens Julia, que afirmaba descender de Iulus, hijo del legendario príncipe troyano Eneas, supuestamente hijo de la diosa Venus. El cognomen "César" se originó, según Plinio el Viejo, con un antepasado que nació por cesárea (del verbo latino cortar, caedere, caes-). La Historia Augusta sugiere tres explicaciones alternativas: que el primer César tenía una espesa cabellera (en latín caesaries), que tenía ojos grises brillantes (en latín, oculis caesiis) o que mató a un elefante (caesai en morisco) en la batalla.

César emitió monedas con imágenes de elefantes, lo que sugiere que estaba a favor de esta interpretación de su nombre. A pesar de su antiguo pedigrí, los Julii Cesares no fueron especialmente influyentes políticamente. El padre de César, también llamado Cayo Julio César, gobernaba la provincia de Asia, mientras que su madre, Aurelia Cotta, provenía de una familia influyente. Poco se registra de la infancia de César.

Los años de formación de César fueron una época de agitación. Hubo varias guerras desde el 91 a. C. hasta el 82 a. C., aunque desde el 82 a. C. hasta el 80 a. C., el dictador Lucius Cornelius Sulla purgó a Roma de sus enemigos políticos. A nivel nacional, la política romana estaba amargamente dividida. En el 85 a. C., el padre de César murió repentinamente, por lo que a los dieciséis años César era el cabeza de familia. Al año siguiente fue nominado para ser el nuevo sumo sacerdote de Júpiter.

Dado que el titular de ese puesto no solo tenía que ser un patricio sino también estar casado con un patricio, rompió su compromiso con una chica plebeya con la que había estado comprometido desde la infancia y se casó con la hija de Lucius Cinna, Cornelia. Mientras tanto, habiendo llevado a Mitrídates a un acuerdo, Sila regresó a Roma y se hizo nombrar él mismo para el renovado cargo de dictador.

Las proscripciones de Sulla provocaron la muerte o el exilio de cientos de sus enemigos políticos. César, como sobrino de Mario y yerno de Cinna, fue el objetivo. Fue despojado de su herencia, la dote de su esposa y su sacerdocio, pero se negó a divorciarse de Cornelia y se vio obligado a esconderse. La amenaza en su contra fue levantada por la intervención de la familia de su madre, que incluía partidarios de Sila y las Vírgenes Vestales. Sila cedió de mala gana y se dice que declaró que vio a muchos Marius en César.

César salió de Roma y se unió al ejército, donde ganó la Corona Cívica por su participación en un importante asedio. En una misión a Bitinia para asegurar la ayuda de la flota del rey Nicomedes, pasó tanto tiempo en su corte que surgieron rumores de un romance con el rey, que César negaría con vehemencia por el resto de su vida. Irónicamente, la pérdida de su sacerdocio le había permitido seguir una carrera militar, ya que al sumo sacerdote de Júpiter no se le permitía tocar un caballo, dormir tres noches fuera de su propia cama o una noche fuera de Roma, o mirar a un ejército.

Al enterarse de la muerte de Sila en 78 a. C., César se sintió lo suficientemente seguro como para regresar a Roma. Careciendo de medios desde que le confiscaron su herencia, adquirió una modesta casa en un barrio de clase baja de Roma. En cambio, recurrió a la defensa legal. Se hizo conocido por su oratoria excepcional, acompañada de gestos apasionados y una voz aguda, y el enjuiciamiento despiadado de ex gobernadores notorios por extorsión y corrupción.

En el camino a través del mar Egeo, César fue secuestrado por piratas y hecho prisionero. Mantuvo una actitud de superioridad durante todo su cautiverio. Cuando los piratas pensaron en exigir un rescate de veinte talentos de plata, insistió en que pidieran cincuenta. Después de que se pagó el rescate, César reunió una flota, persiguió y capturó a los piratas y los encarceló. Los hizo crucificar bajo su propia autoridad, como había prometido mientras estaba en cautiverio, una promesa que los piratas habían tomado como una broma. Como señal de indulgencia, primero les cortaron el cuello. Pronto fue llamado de nuevo a la acción militar en Asia, levantando una banda de auxiliares para repeler una incursión desde el este.

A su regreso a Roma, fue elegido tribuno militar, un primer paso en una carrera política. Fue elegido cuestor en el 69 a. C. y durante ese año pronunció el discurso fúnebre de su tía Julia. Su esposa, Cornelia, también murió ese año. Después de su funeral, en la primavera o principios del verano del 69 a. C., César fue a servir su cuestora en España. Mientras estaba allí, se dice que se encontró con una estatua de Alejandro Magno, y se dio cuenta con descontento de que ahora estaba en una edad en la que Alejandro tenía el mundo a sus pies, mientras que él había logrado comparativamente poco. A su regreso en el 67 a. C., se casó con Pompeya, nieta de Sila, de quien más tarde se divorció.

En el 63 a. C., se postuló para las elecciones al puesto de Pontifex Maximus, sumo sacerdote de la religión estatal romana. Corrió contra dos senadores poderosos. Hubo acusaciones de soborno por todas partes. César ganó cómodamente, a pesar de la mayor experiencia y posición de sus oponentes. Cuando Cicerón, que fue cónsul ese año, expuso la conspiración de Catilina para tomar el control de la república, varios senadores acusaron a César de estar involucrado en el complot.

Después de su cargo de pretor, César fue designado para gobernar España, pero todavía tenía una deuda considerable y necesitaba satisfacer a sus acreedores antes de poder irse. Se volvió hacia Marco Licinio Craso, uno de los hombres más ricos de Roma. A cambio del apoyo político en su oposición a los intereses de Pompeyo, Craso pagó algunas de las deudas de César y actuó como garante de otras. Aun así, para evitar convertirse en un ciudadano privado y así estar abierto a un proceso judicial por sus deudas, César partió hacia su provincia antes de que terminara su pretoría. En España, conquistó dos tribus locales y fue aclamado como imperador por sus tropas, reformó la ley sobre deudas y completó su cargo de gobernador en alta estima.

Como imperador, César tenía derecho a un triunfo. Sin embargo, también quería presentarse a cónsul, la magistratura de mayor rango de la república. Si iba a celebrar un triunfo, tendría que seguir siendo un soldado y permanecer fuera de la ciudad hasta la ceremonia, pero para presentarse a las elecciones tendría que dejar el mando y entrar en Roma como ciudadano privado. No pudo hacer ambas cosas en el tiempo disponible. Pidió al Senado permiso para permanecer en rebeldía, pero Cato bloqueó la propuesta. Ante la elección entre el triunfo y el consulado, César eligió el consulado.



Consulado y campañas militares

Campañas militares de Julio César y Primer Triunvirato


En el 60 a. C., César buscó la elección como cónsul para el 59 a. C., junto con otros dos candidatos. La elección fue sórdida: se dice que incluso Catón, con su reputación de incorruptibilidad, recurrió al soborno en favor de uno de los oponentes de César. César ganó, junto con el conservador Marcus Bibulus.

César ya estaba en deuda política con Craso, pero también hizo propuestas a Pompeyo. Pompeyo y Craso habían estado enfrentados durante una década, por lo que César trató de reconciliarlos. Los tres tenían suficiente dinero e influencia política para controlar los negocios públicos. Esta alianza informal, conocida como el Primer Triunvirato ("gobierno de tres hombres"), se cimentó con el matrimonio de Pompeyo con la hija de César, Julia. César también volvió a casarse, esta vez con Calpurnia, que era hija de otro poderoso senador.

César propuso una ley para la redistribución de las tierras públicas a los pobres, propuesta apoyada por Pompeyo, con las armas si fuera necesario, y por Craso, haciendo público el triunvirato. Pompeyo llenó la ciudad de soldados, un movimiento que intimidó a los oponentes del triunvirato. Bíbulo intentó declarar desfavorables los presagios y así anular la nueva ley, pero fue expulsado del foro por los partidarios armados de César. A sus guardaespaldas les rompieron las hachas ceremoniales, dos altos magistrados que lo acompañaban resultaron heridos y le arrojaron un cubo de excrementos encima. Temiendo por su vida, se retiró a su casa durante el resto del año, emitiendo ocasionales proclamas de malos augurios. Estos intentos de obstruir la legislación de César resultaron ineficaces. Los satíricos romanos siempre se refirieron al año como "el consulado de Julio y César".

Cuando César fue elegido por primera vez, la aristocracia trató de limitar su poder futuro asignando los bosques y pastos de Italia, en lugar de la gobernación de una provincia, ya que su deber de mando militar después de su año en el cargo había terminado. Con la ayuda de aliados políticos, César anuló más tarde esto y, en cambio, fue designado para gobernar la Galia Cisalpina (norte de Italia) e Illyricum (sureste de Europa), y la Galia Transalpina (sur de Francia) se agregó más tarde, dándole el mando de cuatro legiones. El término de su cargo de gobernador, y por lo tanto su inmunidad procesal, se fijó en cinco años, en lugar del habitual. Cuando terminó su consulado, César evitó por poco ser enjuiciado por las irregularidades de su año en el cargo y rápidamente se fue a su provincia.

Conquista de la Galia


César todavía estaba profundamente endeudado, pero se podía ganar dinero como gobernador, ya fuera mediante extorsión o mediante el aventurerismo militar. César tenía cuatro legiones bajo su mando, dos de sus provincias limitaban con territorio no conquistado y se sabía que partes de la Galia eran inestables. Algunos de los aliados galos de Roma habían sido derrotados por sus rivales, con la ayuda de un contingente de tribus germánicas. Los romanos temían que estas tribus se estuvieran preparando para emigrar al sur, más cerca de Italia, y que tuvieran intenciones bélicas. César levantó dos nuevas legiones y derrotó a estas tribus.

En respuesta a las actividades anteriores de César, las tribus del noreste comenzaron a armarse. César trató esto como un movimiento agresivo y, después de un compromiso inconcluso contra las tribus unidas, las conquistó poco a poco. Mientras tanto, una de sus legiones inició la conquista de las tribus del extremo norte (directamente enfrente de Gran Bretaña). Durante la primavera del 56 a. C., el Triunvirato celebró una conferencia, ya que Roma estaba en crisis y la alianza política de César se deshacía. La reunión renovó el Triunvirato y extendió el cargo de gobernador de César por otros cinco años. La conquista del norte pronto se completó, mientras que quedaron algunos focos de resistencia. César ahora tenía una base segura desde la cual lanzar una invasión de Gran Bretaña.


La extensión de la República Romana en el 40 a. C. después de las conquistas de César. En el 55 a. C., César repelió una incursión en la Galia por dos tribus germánicas, y la siguió construyendo un puente sobre el Rin y haciendo una demostración de fuerza en territorio germánico, antes de volviendo y desmantelando el puente. A finales de ese verano, después de haber sometido a otras dos tribus, cruzó a Gran Bretaña, alegando que los británicos habían ayudado a uno de sus enemigos el año anterior, posiblemente los Veneti de Bretaña. Su información de inteligencia era escasa y, aunque ganó una cabeza de playa en la costa, no pudo avanzar más y regresó a la Galia para pasar el invierno. Regresó al año siguiente, mejor preparado y con una fuerza mayor, y logró más. Avanzó tierra adentro y estableció algunas alianzas. Sin embargo, las malas cosechas provocaron una revuelta generalizada en la Galia, que obligó a César a abandonar Gran Bretaña por última vez.

Mientras César estaba en Gran Bretaña, su hija Julia, la esposa de Pompeyo, había muerto al dar a luz. César intentó volver a asegurar el apoyo de Pompeyo ofreciéndole a su sobrina nieta en matrimonio, pero Pompeyo se negó. En el 53 a. C. Craso fue asesinado liderando una fallida invasión del este. Roma estaba al borde de una guerra civil. Pompeyo fue nombrado cónsul único como medida de emergencia y se casó con la hija de un opositor político de César. El Triunvirato estaba muerto.

En el 52 a. C., otra revuelta más grande estalló en la Galia, dirigida por Vercingetorix. Vercingetorix logró unir a las tribus galas y demostró ser un comandante astuto, derrotando a César en varios enfrentamientos, pero los elaborados trabajos de asedio de César en la Batalla de Alesia finalmente lo obligaron a rendirse. A pesar de los estallidos de guerra dispersos al año siguiente, la Galia fue efectivamente conquistada. Plutarco afirmó que el ejército había luchado contra tres millones de hombres durante las guerras de las Galias, de los cuales un millón murió y otro millón fueron esclavizados. Los romanos subyugaron a 300 tribus y destruyeron 800 ciudades. Sin embargo, en vista de la dificultad para encontrar recuentos precisos en primer lugar, los propósitos propagandísticos de César y la exageración común de los números en los textos antiguos, es probable que los totales declarados de combatientes enemigos sean demasiado altos.


Guerra civil de César


En el 50 a. C., el Senado, dirigido por Pompeyo, ordenó a César disolver su ejército y regresar a Roma porque su mandato como gobernador había terminado. César pensó que sería procesado si entraba en Roma sin la inmunidad de que disfrutaba un magistrado. Pompeyo acusó a César de insubordinación y traición. En enero de 49 a. C., César cruzó el río Rubicón (el límite fronterizo de Italia) con una sola legión y encendió la guerra civil. Al cruzar el Rubicón, se supone que César, según Plutarco y Suetonio, citó al dramaturgo ateniense Menandro, en griego, "la suerte está echada".

Erasmo, sin embargo, señala que la traducción más precisa del modo imperativo griego sería "alea icta esto", que se eche la suerte. Pompeyo y gran parte del Senado huyeron hacia el sur, teniendo poca confianza en sus tropas recién reunidas. A pesar de superar en número a César, que solo tenía a su Decimotercera Legión con él, Pompeyo no tenía la intención de luchar. César persiguió a Pompeyo, con la esperanza de capturarlo antes de que sus legiones pudieran escapar.

Pompeyo logró escapar antes de que César pudiera capturarlo. César decidió dirigirse a España, dejando Italia bajo el control de Mark Antony. César hizo una asombrosa ruta de 27 días a España, donde derrotó a los lugartenientes de Pompeyo. Luego regresó al este, para desafiar a Pompeyo en Grecia, donde en julio del 48 a. C. en Dyrrhachium César apenas evitó una derrota catastrófica. Derrotó decisivamente a Pompeyo en Pharsalus en un compromiso extremadamente corto más tarde ese año.

En Roma, César fue nombrado dictador, con Marco Antonio como su maestro de caballos (segundo al mando) César presidió su propia elección para un segundo consulado y luego, después de once días, renunció a esta dictadura. César luego persiguió a Pompeyo a Egipto, donde Pompeyo pronto fue asesinado.

Luego, César se involucró en una guerra civil egipcia entre el niño faraón y su hermana, esposa y reina corregente, Cleopatra. Quizás como resultado del papel del faraón en el asesinato de Pompeyo, César se puso del lado de Cleopatra; se dice que lloró al ver la cabeza de Pompeyo, que el faraón le ofreció como regalo. En cualquier caso, César resistió el asedio de Alejandría y más tarde derrotó a las fuerzas del faraón en la batalla del Nilo en el 47 a. C. e instaló a Cleopatra como gobernante. César y Cleopatra celebraron su victoria con una procesión triunfal por el Nilo en la primavera del 47 a. C. La barcaza real fue acompañada por 400 barcos adicionales, y César conoció el lujoso estilo de vida de los faraones egipcios.

César y Cleopatra nunca se casaron, ya que la ley romana solo reconocía los matrimonios entre dos ciudadanos romanos. César continuó su relación con Cleopatra durante su último matrimonio, que duró catorce años --a los ojos de los romanos, esto no constituía adulterio-- y pudo haber engendrado un hijo llamado Cesarión. Cleopatra visitó Roma en más de una ocasión, residiendo en la villa de César a las afueras de Roma al otro lado del Tíber.

A fines del 48 a. C., César fue nuevamente nombrado dictador, con un mandato de un año. Después de pasar los primeros meses del 47 a. C. en Egipto, César se fue al Medio Oriente, donde aniquiló al rey del Ponto, su victoria fue tan rápida y completa que se burló de las anteriores victorias de Pompeyo sobre enemigos tan pobres. De camino al Ponto, César visitó del 27 al 29 de mayo del 47 a. C. (del 25 al 27 de mayo) a Tarso, donde encontró un apoyo entusiasta, pero donde, según Cicerón, Casio planeaba matarlo en ese momento. Desde allí, se dirigió a África para ocuparse de los restos de los partidarios del Senado de Pompeyo. Rápidamente obtuvo una importante victoria en el 46 a. C. sobre Catón, quien luego se suicidó.

Tras esta victoria, fue nombrado dictador por diez años. Sin embargo, los hijos de Pompeyo escaparon a España. César los persiguió y derrotó a los últimos restos de la oposición en la batalla de Munda en marzo del 45 a. C. Durante este tiempo, César fue elegido para su tercer y cuarto mandato como cónsul en el 46 a. C. y el 45 a. C. (esta última vez sin un colega).


Dictadura y asesinato

Mientras todavía estaba haciendo campaña en España, el Senado comenzó a otorgar honores a César. César no había proscrito a sus enemigos, sino que había perdonado a casi todos, y no había una oposición pública seria contra él. En abril se llevaron a cabo grandes juegos y celebraciones para honrar la victoria de César en Munda. Plutarco escribe que muchos romanos encontraron de mal gusto el triunfo obtenido tras la victoria de César, ya que los derrotados en la guerra civil no habían sido extranjeros, sino compatriotas romanos. Cuando César regresó a Italia en septiembre del 45 a. C., presentó su testamento y nombró a su sobrino nieto Cayo Octavio (Octavio) como heredero de todo, incluido su nombre. César también escribió que si Octavio moría antes que César, Marco Junio ​​Bruto sería el próximo heredero en sucesión.

Durante su carrera temprana, César había visto cuán caótica y disfuncional se había vuelto la República Romana. La maquinaria republicana se había derrumbado bajo el peso del imperialismo, el gobierno central se había vuelto impotente, las provincias se habían transformado en principados independientes bajo el control absoluto de sus gobernadores y el ejército había reemplazado a la constitución como medio para lograr los objetivos políticos. Con un gobierno central débil, la corrupción política se había salido de control y el statu quo había sido mantenido por una aristocracia corrupta, que no veía la necesidad de cambiar un sistema que había enriquecido a sus miembros.

Entre su cruce del río Rubicón en el 49 a. C. y su asesinato en el 44 a. C., César estableció una nueva constitución, que tenía la intención de lograr tres objetivos separados. Primero, quería suprimir toda la resistencia armada en las provincias y así devolver el orden al imperio. En segundo lugar, quería crear un gobierno central fuerte en Roma. Finalmente, quería unir todo el imperio en una sola unidad cohesiva.

El primer gol se logró cuando César derrotó a Pompeyo y sus seguidores. Para lograr los otros dos objetivos, necesitaba asegurarse de que su control sobre el gobierno fuera indiscutible, por lo que asumió estos poderes aumentando su propia autoridad y disminuyendo la autoridad de las otras instituciones políticas de Roma. Finalmente, promulgó una serie de reformas que estaban destinadas a abordar varios temas descuidados durante mucho tiempo, el más importante de los cuales fue su reforma del calendario.


Dictadura

Cuando César regresó a Roma, el Senado le concedió triunfos por sus victorias, aparentemente sobre Galia, Egipto, Farnaces y Juba, en lugar de sobre sus oponentes romanos. No todo salió como quería César. Cuando Arsinoe IV, la ex reina de Egipto, fue desfilada encadenada, los espectadores admiraron su porte digno y se sintieron conmovidos. Se llevaron a cabo juegos triunfales, con cacerías de bestias en las que participaron 400 leones y concursos de gladiadores. Se llevó a cabo una batalla naval en una cuenca inundada en el Campo de Marte. En el Circo Máximo, dos ejércitos de cautivos de guerra, cada uno de 2000 personas, 200 caballos y 20 elefantes, lucharon hasta la muerte. Una vez más, algunos transeúntes se quejaron, esta vez por el derroche de extravagancia de César. Estalló un motín, y solo se detuvo cuando César hizo sacrificar a dos alborotadores por los sacerdotes en el Campo de Marte.

Tras el triunfo, César se dispuso a aprobar una agenda legislativa sin precedentes. Ordenó que se hiciera un censo, lo que obligó a reducir el subsidio de grano, y que los jurados solo podían provenir del Senado o de las filas ecuestres. Aprobó una ley suntuaria que restringía la compra de ciertos lujos. Después de esto, aprobó una ley que recompensaba a las familias por tener muchos hijos, para acelerar la repoblación de Italia. Luego proscribió los gremios profesionales, excepto los de fundación antigua, ya que muchos de estos eran clubes políticos subversivos. Luego aprobó una ley de límite de mandato aplicable a los gobernadores. Aprobó una ley de reestructuración de la deuda, que finalmente eliminó alrededor de una cuarta parte de todas las deudas.

Luego se construyó el Foro de César, con su Templo de Venus Genetrix, entre muchas otras obras públicas. César también reguló estrictamente la compra de cereales subvencionados por el estado y redujo el número de destinatarios a un número fijo, todos los cuales fueron inscritos en un registro especial. Desde el 47 al 44 a. C. hizo planes para la distribución de tierras a unos 15.000 de sus veteranos.

El cambio más importante, sin embargo, fue su reforma del calendario. El calendario en ese momento estaba regulado por el movimiento de la luna, y esto había provocado una gran cantidad de desorden. César reemplazó este calendario con el calendario egipcio, que estaba regulado por el sol. Estableció la duración del año en 365,25 días agregando un día intercalario / bisiesto al final de febrero cada cuatro años.

Para alinear el calendario con las estaciones, decretó que se insertaran tres meses adicionales en el 46 a.C. (el mes intercalario ordinario a fines de febrero y dos meses adicionales después de noviembre). Por lo tanto, el calendario juliano se abrió el 1 de enero de 45 a. C. This calendar is almost identical to the current Western calendar.

Shortly before his assassination, he passed a few more reforms. He established a police force, appointed officials to carry out his land reforms, and ordered the rebuilding of Carthage and Corinth. He also extended Latin rights throughout the Roman world, and then abolished the tax system and reverted to the earlier version that allowed cities to collect tribute however they wanted, rather than needing Roman intermediaries. His assassination prevented further and larger schemes, which included the construction of an unprecedented temple to Mars, a huge theater, and a library on the scale of the Library of Alexandria.

He also wanted to convert Ostia to a major port, and cut a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth. Militarily, he wanted to conquer the Dacians, Parthians, and avenge the loss at Carrhae. Thus, he instituted a massive mobilization. Shortly before his assassination, the Senate named him censor for life and Father of the Fatherland, and the month of Quintilis was renamed July in his honor.

He was granted further honors, which were later used to justify his assassination as a would-be divine monarch coins were issued bearing his image and his statue was placed next to those of the kings. He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular cult, with Mark Antony as his high priest.


Political reforms - Constitutional Reforms of Julius Caesar


The history of Caesar's political appointments is complex and uncertain. Caesar held both the dictatorship and the tribunate, but alternated between the consulship and the Proconsulship. His powers within the state seem to have rested upon these magistracies. He was first appointed dictator in 49 BC possibly to preside over elections, but resigned his dictatorship within eleven days. In 48 BC, he was re-appointed dictator, only this time for an indefinite period, and in 46 BC, he was appointed dictator for ten years.

In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed dictator for life. Under Caesar, a significant amount of authority was vested in his lieutenants, mostly because Caesar was frequently out of Italy. In October 45 BC, Caesar resigned his position as sole consul, and facilitated the election of two successors for the remainder of the year which theoretically restored the ordinary consulship, since the constitution did not recognize a single consul without a colleague.

In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers, which made his person sacrosanct and allowed him to veto the Senate,[80] although on at least one occasion, tribunes did attempt to obstruct him. The offending tribunes in this case were brought before the Senate and divested of their office. This was not the first time that Caesar had violated a tribune's sacrosanctity. After he had first marched on Rome in 49 BC, he forcibly opened the treasury although a tribune had the seal placed on it. After the impeachment of the two obstructive tribunes, Caesar, perhaps unsurprisingly, faced no further opposition from other members of the Tribunician College.

In 46 BC, Caesar gave himself the title of "Prefect of the Morals", which was an office that was new only in name, as its powers were identical to those of the censors. Thus, he could hold censorial powers, while technically not subjecting himself to the same checks that the ordinary censors were subject to, and he used these powers to fill the Senate with his own partisans. He also set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the Senate to bestow various titles and honors upon him. He was, for example, given the title of "Father of the Fatherland" and "imperator".

Coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during senate meetings. Caesar then increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, which created a large pool of experienced magistrates, and allowed Caesar to reward his supporters.

Caesar even took steps to transform Italy into a province, and to link more tightly the other provinces of the empire into a single cohesive unit. This addressed the underlying problem that had caused the Social War decades earlier, where individuals outside Rome and Italy were not considered "Roman", and thus were not given full citizenship rights. This process, of fusing the entire Roman Empire into a single unit, rather than maintaining it as a network of unequal principalities, would ultimately be completed by Caesar's successor, the emperor Augustus.

When Caesar returned to Rome in 47 BC, the ranks of the Senate had been severely depleted, and so he used his censorial powers to appoint many new senators, which eventually raised the Senate's membership to 900. All the appointments were of his own partisans, which robbed the senatorial aristocracy of its prestige, and made the Senate increasingly subservient to him. To minimize the risk that another general might attempt to challenge him, Caesar passed a law that subjected governors to term limits.

Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. Since his absence from Rome might limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC. This, in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator.


Assassination

The senators encircle Caesar. A 19th century interpretation of the event by Carl Theodor von Piloty.On the Ides of March (15 March see Roman calendar) of 44 BC, Caesar was due to appear at a session of the Senate. Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off. The plotters, however, had anticipated this and, fearing that Antony would come to Caesar's aid, had arranged for Trebonius to intercept him just as he approached the portico of Theatre of Pompey, where the session was to be held, and detain him outside. (Plutarch, however, assigns this action to delay Antony to Brutus Albinus). When he heard the commotion from the senate chamber, Antony fled.

According to Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. The other conspirators crowded round to offer support. Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic. Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!").

At the same time, Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?" Casca, frightened, shouted, "Help, brother!" in Greek ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει", "adelphe, boethei"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 or more men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times.

According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "καὶ σύ, τέκνον" (transliterated as "Kai su, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, for himself, Suetonius says Caesar said nothing.

Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?") this derives from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." It has no basis in historical fact and Shakespeare's use of Latin here is not from any assertion that Caesar would have been using the language, rather than the Greek reported by Suetonius, but because the phrase was already popular when the play was written.

According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators they, however, fled the building. Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumor of what had taken place had begun to spread. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it.

Caesar's body was cremated, and on the site of his cremation the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum). Nowadays, only its altar remains. A lifesize wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had gathered there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighboring buildings. In the ensuing chaos Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire.


Aftermath of the assassination


Mark Antony, Caesar's cousin.The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavian his sole heir, bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic.

The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the Liberators' civil war, fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.

To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a god").

Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of proscription, abandoned since Sulla. It engaged in the legally-sanctioned murder of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its forty-five legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. Antony and Octavius defeated them at Philippi.

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Caesar's adopted heir.Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name that raised him to the status of a deity.

Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia, the Caucasus and Scythia, and then march back to Germania through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination. His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.

Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. He was posthumously granted the title Divus Iulius or Divus Julius (the divine Julius or the deified Julius) by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honors during his lifetime: and shortly before his assassination, Mark Antony had been appointed as his flamen (priest). Both Octavian and Mark Antony promoted the cult of Divus Iulius. After the death of Antony, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (son of a god).


Why did Caesar's conquer Gaul?

Some allies of the Romans in Gaul (modern France and Belgium) were defeated by Germanic tribes. This was used by Caesar as a pretext to intervene in Gaul and to begin its conquest. Caesar was a remarkable general. [8] He successfully defeated the Germanic tribes after he went north. The Gaul in the North and West were alarmed by the appearance of Romans and they began to form defensive alliances. These alliances were interpreted by Caesar as a threat to Rome even though this may not have been the case.

He ordered his legions to march to the far north of Gaul and he conquered much of the area. He also extended Roman influence into the south-west. Caesar had begun the conquest of Gaul without the sanction of the Senate and many regarded his campaign as an illegal war. At a conference in Lucca in 55 BCE, Caesar's consulship was extended. In addition to extending his consulship, Caesar was in charge of Gaul for another five years.


What Are Some Bad Things About Julius Caesar?

Caesar's critics were unhappy with how much power he amassed and for other things such as the fact that he distributed land among the poor. Aristocratic Romans did not like Caesar, and other Roman politicians resented his power.

Very few leaders have had the unanimous support of their people, and Julius Caesar was no exception. Though he was an extremely successful military leader and politician — consolidating power, defeating Roman enemies and gaining territory abroad — he had his detractors. Of course, the bad things about Caesar are a matter of perception. He was extremely unpopular among aristocrats due to some of his policies, which favored the poor and therefore angered wealthy Romans. Caesar's success at gaining and consolidating power also led some to suspect he was trying to become a king in Rome: this is something that was not supported by the political system and public opinion of the time.


Caesar the Not So Good Leader

While Caesar certainly had many positive qualities and did many things that made him a good leader, there's an equally long list of things that make him a not so great leader. For starters, Caesar managed to become consul through a shady political alliance with two other Roman politicians, Crassus and Pompey. Called the First Triumvirate, the three men manipulated the Senate to get what they wanted. Even though the land reforms passed during Caesar's time as consul were beneficial to many Romans, the way he forced them through the Senate were not exactly legal. When he realized things weren't going the way he wanted, Caesar started a riot in Rome and then took advantage of the mayhem to pass the laws.

Caesar knew that as long as he was still a public servant, he could never be brought to trial for the illegal things he did. Despite his impressive work as a governor of Gaul, the Senate decided to take away his official title, effectively removing him from public service and opening the door for his prosecution. Instead of returning to Rome as a private citizen, like the Senate had asked, Caesar decided to go to war. Through some impressive political and military maneuvering, Caesar managed to conquer Rome. While this sounds like a positive aspect of his leadership, his actions ultimately hurt him in the end.

Around this time, Caesar managed to take control of Egypt and start a relationship with the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra. He brought her back to Rome with him. This might not sound like a big deal, but Caesar was married at the time, and Rome had some serious laws about having more than one wife at one time.

When Caesar was named 'dictator for life' in 44 B.C., he made some important improvements to Rome, while at the same time angering the Senate. Like the U.S. Senate, the Roman Senate was made up of representatives that voted to make and pass new laws. Caesar ignored the democratic nature of the Senate instead he pushed his own laws and his own agendas. At the end of the day, the Senate was alarmed by Caesar's actions and worried that he had way too much power. His reckless behavior and devil-may-care attitude ultimately led to his downfall. He was assassinated on March 15, 44 B.C. by members of the Senate, a pretty good indication that people viewed him as a poor leader!


The life of Julius Caesar and his impact in Rome

People like him were rare. He had never been depressed or disheartened by any kind of misfortunes. Additionally, he was determined to face all dangers and evils that surrounded him and did not succumb to any of them. He had a tall and handsome stature and was very likeable. The society was something he was fond of, and it was fond of him, too. All his manners were fascinating (Abbott 14). As a result, he became an excellent general. He was very keen on special tactics and strategy that would help him handle the Roman soldiers who were rough and greedy. He had a unique swiftness as far as acting on his enemies was concerned. Patience was also a trait that he had, which helped him plan for the best time and place that he would fight his battles. Most of his soldiers had total dedication to him because of his unique leadership skills. All these positive traits are attributed to Julius Caesar (SFUSD para.1). This paper seeks to discuss the life of Julius Caesar and the effect he had on the future of Rome.

There are very few documented works that talk on the childhood of Julius Caesar. One of them has the information that he did not have any formal education. However, his primary education was delivered to him by a private tutor where he obtained skills in writing and reading. The secondary education that he received helped him as he acquired skills in music, history, geography, science, and Greek philosophy. He also studied the Rhodes rhetoric, which came in handy as it prepared him in his law career in the courts (Roberts 47).

Julius' father passed away while he was 16 years old. He was then nominated as the next Jupiter priest. At this time, he married a lady known as Cornelia after breaking his relationship with a lady known as Cossutia. Cornelia was the daughter of Sulla, who was a consul for four times. A rift arose between Caesar and Sulla as a result of his marriage to his daughter. This made him live in secret places. Afterwards, they resolved their enmity, and they bore a daughter and named it Julia (Tranquillus para.1).

2. His Early Political Life

Julius Caesar served as a personal aide for Marcus Thermus who was the governor of the Asian province. He was sent several times to a king called Bithynia to fetch a fleet in which he was suspected of having false deals with the king of Bithynia. He also served under a person called Serviliys Isaricus in Cilicia. His exposure to the military also made him popular, and it was at this point he started his political ambitions (Tranquillus para.1 & 2).

3. Rise to Power

Julius Caesar belonged to one of the oldest Roman families. He was a member of the popular Democratic Party. Caesar was ordered to divorce Lucius Cornelius' daughter, Cinna. However, he never obeyed. Consequently, he fled Rome due to his prescription. He only returned to Rome after Sulla died. This was when his political career started. He was very popular in his party because of his good characteristics as an orator. It was also during this time when Caesar went to Asia so as to drive away an army called the Cappadocian. When he returned to Rome, he was in the lead in agitating for government reforms.

Additionally, Caesar was behind the election of Pompey, who became the head of the Democratic Party. Due to his popularity, he became a military tribune. Together with Pompey, they went to the East so as to obtain power in terms of command. After that, he returned to Rome and became more honored than Pompey. All this time, he continually adored Cinna and Marius, and the Romans loved him for that. However, the opposite could not be said of the Senate, for they loathed him.

Caesar had influence now, and everything could work out well for him. He bribed his way up to the position of the high priest, better known as the pontifex maximus. Immediately, he participated in reforming the Roman calendar, which benefited the society greatly. Caesar never sided with the Senate at any time. As a result, he was always the favorite of the people. As he rose to power, he pleaded for mercy to a group of conspirators of the Roman Government. This increased the rift between the Senate and him. In 62 BC, Pompeia, the second wife of Caesar, had a scandalous love affair with Clodius. Caesar did not believe that any of his wives would betray him. Therefore, he divorced her as she went against their Roman rites.

4. The Triumvirate

Caesar had served as a proconsul in Spain. He returned to Rome with a high ambition: to be a consulate. Since he was a man who knew how to strategize, he made up a coalition of three leaders. However, he was strongly opposed by the Senate. This coalition was composed of Pompey, who was the army's commander-in-chief, and Marcus Licinius Crassus who was rated as the richest Roman citizen. The two members were always fighting because of the jealousy they felt for one another. Caesar was, however different, as his personality always kept the three working together.

Caesar was the most active of the three he succeeded in fighting for the rights of the poor veterans and citizens by making sure the Senate had secured land for them. The wealthy equities also supported him strongly. It was at this time when he married Calpurina. However, the other two members, Pompey and Crassus, could not stop fighting. After calming the two triumvirate members, Caesar decided to appoint them as leaders separately. He appointed them as consuls, where Pompey served in Spain and Crassus in Syria. This benefitted him as Caesar gained command of the whole Gaul where he won several conquests. The major tie between Pompey and Caesar was Julia, who was Caesar's daughter, and was married by Pompey. Julia was killed when Caesar was in Gaul. At the same time, Pompey betrayed him by supporting the Senatorial party. This was as a result of his envy toward Caesar as he had achieved a lot of military success after the conquest in Gaul. Crassus, the other member of the triumvirate, died, and this marked the end of the coalition. Since then, Pompey and Caesar became great rivals.

5. The Conquest of Gaul

Julius Caesar lived in Britain and Gaul for a period of seven years. In his stay, he was successful in making alliances with some of the tribes in Gaul. These tribes helped him as he was able to fight their enemies. There was a tribe in Switzerland that was referred to as the Helvetii. He learned of their ill intentions of invading the lands of Rome. Consequently, he recruited two legions, which included a total of 7,200 men. They went to the north so as to fight the Helvetti, and the small Roman army defeated the larger Helvetti army. Caesar then dealt with the Germans, who were also a threat to the Roman people. His army conquered the Germans, too. All these victories inspired him as he learned that he could conquer the whole of Gaul (SFUSD para. 5).

The following year, he fought and conquered the Belgic tribes that lived in the North. The army was so powerful that in Normandy, France, and Brittany, the fight was so intense and was stopped by Caesar's lieutenant known as Publius Licinius Crassus. All these victories lasted for two years. The whole of the Gaul region bowed down to him, from the Ocean to the Rhine River, and also to the Roman Empire. The Senate honored him by declaring a 15-day long holiday (SFUSD para.4).

At this time, Rome had a lot of problems. The agriculture sector was hardly hit as there was a shortage in grains. There were so many violent outbreaks as results of the fighting of the mobs in 57 BC. This situation also led to the formation of the triumvirate, which was composed of Crassus, Pompey, and Julius. However, Julius Caesar was the most respected because of all the conquests he had achieved in a short period of time. As a result, the other two leaders detested him and were constantly jealous of him (SFUSD para. 5).

In 56 BC, he destroyed the Veneti and other Gaul tribes that had revolted against the Roman Empire. He also wiped out German tribes who had come to assist Gaul in their fight against the Roman soldiers. Afterwards, he led his army in crossing the Rhine River and destroyed the Germans and Britons who had supported the Gauls. This time, he received 20 days of public thanksgiving. Though he made all these conquests, there was no peace in Gaul. He organized for other conquests in Britain, but they were not successful. It was a double tragedy to him because after arriving at Gaul from Britain, he was given the shocking news of the death of his daughter Julia and Aurelia, her mother. Additionally, he had lost over 10,000 of his men (SFUSD para. 8 and 9).

This marked a turning point in his life. All his anger and stress was projected to the people of Gaul. Unlike in the past, he treated all his enemies with great hate and disrespect. As a result of the atrocities that he subjected the people of Gaul into, a revolt was organized by a young prince referred to as Vercingetorix. He led the central Gaul residents in revolt. However, his troops, plus their wives and daughters, were destroyed by Caesar who was again honored with a 20-day public thanksgiving (SFUSD para.10 and 11). The last conquest took place in a city known as Uxellodunum. Caesar commanded his people to cut the army of all the men who were armed. The whole land of Gaul was conquered. Caesar even wrote in all his commentaries that there was peace in the land of Gaul even though it was a graveyard peace (SFUSD para. 13).

6. Civil War

The first triumvirate came to an end. Pompey was fully supported by the Senate and was appointed as the consul. Meanwhile, almost all the Roman people adored Caesar as a result of his military success. Therefore, the Senate was threatened and feared him a lot. They demanded Caesar to give up his army because they knew he also wanted to be consul after his term in Gaul had expired. Caesar responded and stated that the only way he could give up his army was if Pompey could also give up his. This really infuriated the Senate, which stated that if Caesar did not surrender, they would declare him as an enemy of the people in Rome, which would tarnish his reputation among the Roman citizens. The law stated that a person could only keep his army until the term was over. There was so much tension in the Senate at that time.

Some members of the Senate were in support of Caesar. Therefore, the Senate expelled them, and they fled to Caesar. Consequently, Caesar gathered enough soldiers who supported him against the senatorial leaders. After all the arrangements had been made, the army crossed the Rubicon, a river which separated the province from Italy. They entered Italy, and the Civil War started. The march of Caesar and his army was triumphant, and this shocked the Senate, which fled to Capua. Caesar later went to Brundisium where he attacked Pompey. Pompey feared and fled with his army to Greece. Caesar and his army brought peace to Spain, a place where the legates of Spain were holding. Caesar returned to Rome and became a dictator for only 11 days. These days were enough for his election as consul. Afterwards, he went to Greece to look for Pompey.

Caesar was determined to kill Pompey. He and his army set themselves strategically in Pharsalus. Pompey tried to attack Caesar, but he was killed after he fled to Egypt. Afterwards, Caesar remained in Egypt for some time. He continued with the war where he went to Pontus and Syria. At these points, he conquered Pharnaces II very easily. This was one of the followers of Pompey. Additionally, he went to Africa where all the Pompey supporters had gone to hide. He successfully fought them and ended their opposition, which was led by a person called Cato. This marked the end of the Civil War.

Afterwards, Caesar went back to Rome and became a dictator where he ruled for 10 years. He was above the constitution and the law in the Roman Empire. After two years, he became "the dictator for life" and the head of all the government offices. There were many reforms that he made in the government. However, all the reforms were considered meaningless by some, and his power was considered absolute. His power seemed sort of a monarchy, which evoked great hatred from the Roman people as they loved and cherished their Republican tradition. This prompted some people to plan on how they would attack Caesar (Hooker para.5).

7. Caesar Assassinated

Caesar was murdered on March 15 44 BC. The populace was not pleased with his dictatorial style of leadership. Several plots had been made in an attempt to kill him. A soothsayer known as Spurrina had warned him of the impeding danger that would befall him in the month of March (Gavorse para. 2). In fact, on the day prior to his death, Caesar had dreamt that a person had stabbed him in the arms of his wife. His health was also deteriorating, which made him inefficient even in his leadership (Gavorse para. 3). Several notes of the dangerous plots against him were handed over to him, but he dismissed all these claims and even laughed off the words of the soothsayer. Several people came to him and pretended to be paying their respects to him (Gavorse para. 4). They were conspirators, and they stabbed him repeatedly. He had more than 20 wounds inflicted on his body. Afterwards, the conspirators ran away. His lifeless body was later carried by his slaves where he died shortly (Gavorse para. 5).

8. Caesar's Literary Works

There are very many pioneers of literary works that presented the life of Julius Caesar and the events that surrounded him in plays and poems. Among these people is William Shakespeare. The works of Julius Caesar were held with high esteem as they are even today. He had several commentaries about the Civil War and Conquest of Gaul. Seven of his books have the information on the Gallic wars, and they have narrated on the events of the Civil War. They are documents which derive their roots from the classical military times. He also wrote a lot of poetry, which was quite a masterpiece. The only piece of poem that is present today is one on Terence.

He left several unfinished works, most of which he talked about the rift between him and Pompey and all the events that happened. They were later published by Oppius and Hirtiys. He is described as one who "wrote memoirs which deserve the highest praise they are naked in their simplicity, straightforward yet graceful, stripped off all rhetorical adornment, as of a garment" (Tranquillus para. 56).

9. A Legacy that Lives on: His Effects on the Future of Rome

Caesar is one of the people in history who have led a life that has evoked great controversy. Some of the Roman citizens loathed his leadership. Those who admired him stated that he fought for the people's rights by ending oligarchy. They termed him as a very ambitious demagogue whose way into power restored the Republic through his dictatorial leadership. They adore his different gifts and his versatile nature. Additionally, his admirers praised him for his good skills as an orator, a military leader, and a statesman.

Peace was restored in Rome through the wars he fought. He was behind the programs that showed the level of affection he had for Rome. He also ensured there was an improvement in the economic and social sectors. The Civil War affected the future of Rome in that all the Cilicians and the Gauls who lived north of a river referred to as Po could become leaders. The numbers of the senators rose from 600 to 900. There were many Sulan citizens who were denied their rights prior to his leadership. Upon his leadership, the rights of these people were restored. The social life of the Roman people was also put into place (Roberts 150).

Initially, the Romans had no calendar of their own. He introduced the Julian calendar to this effect. He also abolished all the trade guilds because there was a lot of political gangs and mobs that abused them. Upon his leadership, the Southern Italy plantation labor force increased. This was because over a third of the population was given jobs in the plantations. There were very important provincial leaders in Rome at that time. All of them had been enrolled by Caesar. They helped to rebuild the poor Roman citizens' colonization (Roberts 150).

10. Conclusion

Julius Caesar is a person who will forever be remembered in the history of Rome and the world in general. Although most of his activities revolved around wars and conquest, he, indeed, changed some aspects in the Roman Empire. His leadership style seems to prove what some people state, that there can never be peace without war in any land. His leadership achievement is, however, debatable. This is because the Roman Empire was continually involved in civil wars even after his demise.


Claudio

Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus (10 BCE–54 CE), ruled as emperor, January 24, 41 CE–October 13, 54 CE) and known as Claudius, suffered from various physical infirmities which many thought reflected his mental state. As a result, Claudius was secluded, a fact that kept him safe. Having no public duties to perform, Claudius was free to pursue his interests. His first public office came at the age of 46. Claudius became emperor shortly after his nephew was assassinated by his bodyguard, on January 24, 41 CE. The tradition is that Claudius was found by some of the Praetorian Guard hiding behind a curtain. The guard hailed him as emperor.

It was during the reign of Claudius that Rome conquered Britain (43 CE). Claudius' son, born in 41, who had been named Tiberius Claudius Germanicus, was re-named Britannicus for this. As Tacitus describes in his Agricola, Aulus Plautius was Britain's first Roman governor, appointed by Claudius after Plautius had led the successful invasion, with a Roman force that included the future Flavian emperor Vespasian whose older son, Titus, was a friend of Britannicus.

After adopting his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus (Nero), in 50 CE, Claudius made it clear that Nero was preferred for the succession over Britannicus. Tradition has it that Claudius' wife Agrippina, now secure in her son's future, killed her husband by means of a poison mushroom on October 13, 54 CE. Britannicus is thought to have died unnaturally in 55.

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 CE–June 9, 68 CE, ruled the Roman Empire between October 13, 54 and June 9, 68.

The boy who would become Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, on Dec. 15, 37 CE, the son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Caligula's sister Agrippina the Younger at Antium, which is also where Nero was staying when the famous fire broke out. His father died in 40. As a young boy, Lucius received many honors, including leading youth in the Trojan Games in 47 and being prefect of the city (probably) for the 53 spring Latin games. He was allowed to wear the toga virilis at a young age (probably 14) instead of at the normal 16. Lucius' stepfather, the Emperor Claudius, died, probably at the hands of his wife Agrippina. Lucius, whose name had been changed to Nero Claudius Caesar (showing lineage from Augustus), became the Emperor Nero.

A series of unpopular treason laws in 62 CE and the fire in Rome in 64 helped seal Nero's reputation. Nero used the treason laws to kill whomever Nero considered a threat and the fire gave him the opportunity to build his golden palace, the "domus aurea." Between 64 and 68 a colossal statue of Nero was built that stood in the vestibule of the domus aurea. It was moved during the reign of Hadrian and was probably destroyed by the Goths in 410 or by earthquakes. Unrest throughout the empire eventually led Nero to commit suicide himself on June 9, 68 in Rome.


5 Ways Julius Caesar Used Money to Amass Power - History

Although he did not rule for long, he gave Rome fresh hope and a whole dynasty of emperors.

Dangerous times

Born into an aristocratic family in around 100 BC, Julius Caesar grew up in dangerous times. Rome could not yet handle its own size and power. The nobility were widely discredited and order had given way to chaos. The only clear alternative was military dictatorship.

Caesar allied himself against the nobility. As his career took off, he won a number of political offices, not always by reputable means. By 63 BC, he had become a well-known, but controversial figure.

Viva Espana

Despite his notoriety, he was appointed governor of Farther Spain. This was a lucrative position, because it offered him the chance to plunder the local inhabitants at will. He returned to Rome in 60 BC and, the following year, was elected consul, the highest office in the republic.

Now holding real power, Caesar allied himself with two key people, Pompey and Crassus. Pompey was a war hero who had been badly treated by the Senate, while Crassus was a multimillionaire. The two men were rivals but Caesar was able to bridge the gap between them and the three men formed the powerful first triumvirate .

I predict a riot

As consul, Caesar wanted to pay off Pompey s soldiers by allocating them public lands. This was unpopular, so to get the measure through he engineered a riot and used the chaos to get his own way. He then used his power to secure the governorship of Gaul (modern day France and Belgium).

Gaul gave Caesar a power-base to recruit soldiers and conduct the military campaigns that would make his name and secure his fortune.

Conquering Gaul

Between 58 and 50 BC, Caesar used his expertise in military strategy, along with the Roman army s training and discipline to conquer and subdue the rest of Gaul, up to the river Rhine.

When battling foreign enemies, Caesar was ruthless. Besieging rebels in what is now the Dordogne part of France, he waited until their water supply ran out and then cut off the hands of all the survivors.

Under threat back home

He now turned his attention back home. His triumvirate was badly strained. Pompey was increasingly jealous of Caesar s success and Crassus still hated Pompey. After Crassus was killed in battle, Pompey and Caesar drifted apart, ultimately finding themselves on opposing sides.

By now, Caesar was very successful, but he had many enemies and found his position and his life under threat. He believed the only way he could protect himself was by seizing power. In January, 49 BC, he led his troops across the Rubicon River into Italy and started civil war.

Caesar scored some early victories and, by 46 BC, was dictator of Rome. After a year spent eliminating his remaining enemies, he returned home. Generous in victory, he was kind to his defeated rivals, giving them all amnesties and even inviting some to join him in government.

Yet his position remained insecure. Without a son of his own, he needed an heir. Caesar quickly adopted his great nephew, Augustus. He also moved fast to strengthen the northern borders of the empire and tackle its enemies in the east.

At home, he reformed the Roman calendar, tackled local government, resettled veterans into new cities, made the Senate more representative and granted citizenship to many more foreigners.

Beware the Ides of March

But his rule would be cut short. Old enemies joined forces with some of his supporters, fed up of his dictatorial style. On March15, 44 BC, the Ides of March, Caesar was assassinated in the Senate.

Although his own rule was unremarkable, his victory in the civil war replaced a republic, ruled by the consuls and the Senate, with an empire, reigned over by emperors and their hereditary successors. It was the start of a brand new age for Rome.


Where to next:
Religion in Ancient Rome Augustus
Emperors - Augustus
Life in Roman Times Soldiers
Enemies and Rebels - Cleopatra & Egypt

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