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Philip Henry Kerr (Lord Lothian)

Philip Henry Kerr (Lord Lothian)


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Philip Henry Kerr, el mayor de los cinco hijos supervivientes, nació en Londres el 18 de abril de 1882. Su padre, Ralph Drury Kerr (1837-1916), hijo del séptimo marqués de Lothian, era un oficial del ejército y su esposa, Lady Anne (1857-1931), era la hija menor de Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard, decimocuarto duque de Norfolk.

Los padres de Kerr eran devotos católicos romanos y, en septiembre de 1892, fue enviado a la fundación del cardenal Newman, la Escuela Oratoria de Edgbaston. Durante muchos años Kerr creyó que tenía la vocación de ser sacerdote, pero las dudas religiosas ya habían surgido cuando ingresó al New College en octubre de 1900. En 1904 obtuvo un título de primera clase en historia moderna, pero no fue un candidato exitoso. para una beca en All Souls College más tarde ese año.

Sir Arthur Lawley, teniente gobernador de la colonia de Transvaal, había servido a las órdenes de Ralph Drury Kerr en el décimo de húsares y le ofreció a Kerr un puesto como secretario privado adjunto y ayudante de campo. Kerr llegó a Pretoria en febrero de 1905. Dos meses después se convirtió en secretario adjunto del consejo intercolonial y del comité ferroviario de las cuatro colonias sudafricanas. También fue secretario del comité permanente de la policía de Sudáfrica desde diciembre de 1905 y secretario de la comisión de indigencias desde septiembre de 1906. En diciembre de 1908 comenzó a editar una nueva revista mensual, The State, que se publicaría tanto en inglés como en Holandés, y fue parte de la campaña para la unificación de las colonias sudafricanas.

Alfred Milner y Lionel George Curtis establecieron el La mesa redonda: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, una revista para promover una unión más estrecha entre el Reino Unido y sus colonias autónomas. Kerr, que había trabajado con Milner y Curtis en Sudáfrica, fue contratado para editar la revista con el salario de 1.000 libras esterlinas al año. Según su biógrafo, Alex May: "El primer número de la Mesa redonda apareció en noviembre de 1910, con un largo artículo de Kerr titulado Rivalidad anglo-alemana y contribuciones de otros miembros de la red Mesa Redonda ... La mayoría de sus artículos eran lúcidos y persuasivos, aunque muchos a veces también eran prolijos. Durante su tiempo como editor, sus puntos de vista cambiaron significativamente, tanto sobre la necesidad y viabilidad de la federación imperial, como sobre lo que, siguiendo la terminología de la época, describió como las relaciones entre pueblos "avanzados" y "atrasados". El sur y el este de África fueron siempre para él (como para otros miembros de la Mesa redonda) un punto ciego. Sin embargo, Kerr pronto llegó a reconocer la necesidad de una extensión gradual del gobierno representativo en las otras dependencias imperiales de Gran Bretaña ".

Kerr continuó editando el La mesa redonda durante la Primera Guerra Mundial. Kerr también estuvo involucrado en el complot para expulsar a Herbert Asquith del poder en 1916. Alfred Milner, quien también estuvo involucrado, arregló que David Lloyd George, el nuevo primer ministro, nombrara a Kerr como su nuevo secretario privado. Alex May señala: "La responsabilidad inicial de Kerr eran las cuestiones laborales, pero pronto se le asignó la responsabilidad de los asuntos imperiales y exteriores. Su deber principal era resumir y asesorar sobre la gran cantidad de documentos presentados al primer ministro por otras partes del gobierno. máquina de gobierno, pero fue llamado cada vez más para actuar como consejero e intermediario de Lloyd George. Su influencia en la política de Lloyd George en asuntos tales como objetivos de guerra, relaciones con los dominios y el desarrollo de planes para una Liga de Naciones fue considerable ". Winston Churchill culpó a Kerr por persuadir a Lloyd George de que rechazara su plan de intervención aliada a mayor escala contra los bolcheviques durante la Guerra Civil Rusa.

Kerr renunció como secretario privado de Lloyd George en marzo de 1921 para convertirse en editor gerente de La crónica diaria y un director de United Newspapers Ltd, que controlaba el primer ministro. Kerr dimitió en febrero de 1922, pero siguió siendo un firme partidario de Lloyd George. El principal motivo para dejar este puesto fue dedicar más tiempo al estudio religioso. Tres meses después, le dijo a Lionel George Curtis que se había unido al Movimiento de la Ciencia Cristiana. En una carta fechada el 28 de mayo de 1922 escribió que estaba "convencido de que la Ciencia Cristiana es la verdadera clave de todos nuestros problemas, políticos y económicos, nada menos que personales".

Durante los años siguientes, Kerr escribió artículos para el Monitor de la Ciencia Cristiana y otros periódicos. También realizó giras de conferencias por Estados Unidos. Rechazó la oferta de convertirse en editor extranjero de Los tiempos, pero en julio de 1925 lo persuadieron para que asumiera el cargo de secretario del Rhodes Trust con un salario de 2.000 libras esterlinas al año. Su nombramiento resultó en la renuncia de Rudyard Kipling como fideicomisario. Como muchos otros en el ala derecha de la política británica, Kipling responsabilizó personalmente a Kerr por la retirada del imperio en la India.

El 16 de marzo de 1930, Kerr sucedió a su primo Robert Schomberg Kerr como marqués de Lothian. También heredó una cantidad considerable de propiedades, incluido el castillo Ferniehirst, Newbattle Abbey y Blickling Hall. Kerr era considerado un personaje excéntrico y es recordado por llegar a la coronación de Jorge VI en un Austin Seven maltrecho.

En la década de 1930, Lord Lothian abogó por una cooperación más estrecha entre Gran Bretaña y Estados Unidos. En su conferencia, Pacifismo no es suficiente, ni patriotismo tampoco (1935), sugirió que un bloque angloamericano resultaría ser la piedra angular de una eventual mancomunidad mundial. Lothian creía que Gran Bretaña no era parte de Europa: tenía una historia distinta y un destino distinto. Pensó que Europa debería estar unida, pero sin Gran Bretaña.

Lothian fue un crítico del Tratado de Versalles y sintió que Alemania había sido tratada con dureza. Lothian conoció a Adolf Hitler en enero de 1935 y volvió a pronunciarse convencido de que "Alemania no quiere la guerra y está dispuesta a renunciar a ella absolutamente ... siempre que se le dé una igualdad real". Lothian fue visto como uno de los principales defensores del apaciguamiento y cuando Hitler volvió a ocupar Renania en marzo de 1936, se informó que Lothian dijo que los alemanes solo ocupaban "su propio jardín trasero". Sin embargo, su punto de vista cambió en 1938 y le escribió a Lord Halifax instándole a dejar en claro que el gobierno británico se pondría del lado de Checoslovaquia si la Alemania nazi recurriera a la fuerza. En marzo de 1939, Lothian admitió que ahora se daba cuenta de "que Hitler es en efecto un gángster fanático que no se detendrá ante nada para derrotar toda posibilidad de resistencia en cualquier lugar a su voluntad" y pidió una "gran alianza" contra la agresión.

Neville Chamberlain nombró a Lothian embajador británico en Washington. Asumió el cargo el 30 de agosto de 1939. El estallido de la Segunda Guerra Mundial tuvo lugar cuatro días después. Su biógrafo, Alex May, ha comentado: "Lothian tenía un encanto aristocrático, pero ideales democráticos; amaba Estados Unidos y había viajado por él extensamente; tenía una amplia gama de contactos, en el gobierno, las universidades y el periodismo; y era un experto en el arte de la presentación. Su nombramiento fue criticado por los estadounidenses que lo identificaron con el apaciguamiento; por otros que sospechaban que usaría su astucia para inducir a los estadounidenses a luchar por la preservación del imperio británico; y por muchos funcionarios del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores que sospechaban , con razón, ese Lothian sería difícil de controlar ".

El 14 de diciembre de 1939, Lothian escribió a Lord Halifax: "La opinión estadounidense sigue siendo ... casi unánimemente antinazi. Además, ahora es casi más fuertemente antisoviética. -Británico. Hay elementos formidables que son definitivamente anti-británicos que aprovechan cada oportunidad para tergiversar nuestros motivos y atacar nuestros métodos ... No tengo ninguna duda de que el mejor correctivo es la publicidad más completa posible de Inglaterra y Francia a través de los importantes y corresponsales estadounidenses de clase alta de lo que los Aliados están pensando y haciendo ".

Nicholas J. Cull, autor de Vendiendo la guerra: la campaña de propaganda británica contra la neutralidad estadounidense (1996), ha señalado: "Lord Lothian fue un maestro de la escena estadounidense. Siempre accesible y desarmadoramente franco, cautivó al cuerpo de prensa ... También disfrutó del hábil consejo de John Wheeler-Bennett y Keith Officer, en Australia diplomático asignado para asesorar al embajador en asuntos de opinión pública. Con sus consejos, comenzó el trabajo de explicar Gran Bretaña a Estados Unidos y, no menos importante, Estados Unidos a los británicos ... Aunque su predecesor, Lindsay, le había instado a adoptar Con un perfil bajo, se negó a permitir que el caso británico se perdiera por defecto, y habló con buenos resultados durante la Guerra Falsa. Comenzó abordando las acusaciones de propaganda de frente: contrastando la propaganda alemana y la publicidad británica ".

Lord Lothian disfrutó de una buena relación con figuras importantes del mundo de la prensa como Arthur Hays Sulzberger, Walter Lippmann y Helen Ogden Reid. Sin embargo, tuvo cuidado de no dar la impresión de que no estaba involucrado en ninguna campaña para llevar a Estados Unidos a la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Le dijo a su amigo, Frederick Whyte: "Si bien ninguna propaganda sigue siendo nuestra palabra de vigilancia en lo que respecta a los Estados Unidos, esto no significa que no estemos haciendo todo lo posible para que la información precisa sobre nuestros objetivos y acciones esté disponible para aquellos que están mal informados ". Lothian explicó a la sucursal de Chicago del Council on Foreign Relations en enero de 1940: "La propaganda es el intento deliberado de influir en sus compatriotas u otras naciones para que adopten un curso de acción en particular, mediante mentiras, medias verdades o insinuaciones tendenciosas. La verdad nunca es propaganda ; es el báculo de la vida ".

William Stephenson, el jefe de la Coordinación de Seguridad Británica (BSC), llegó a los Estados Unidos en junio de 1940. Sabía que con los principales funcionarios que apoyaban el aislacionismo tenía que superar estas barreras. Su principal aliado en esto fue otro amigo, William Donovan, a quien había conocido en la Primera Guerra Mundial. "La adquisición de ciertos suministros para Gran Bretaña ocupaba un lugar destacado en mi lista de prioridades y fue la urgente urgencia de este requisito lo que me hizo concentrarme instintivamente en la única persona que podía ayudarme. Me dirigí a Bill Donovan". Donovan organizó reuniones con Henry Stimson (Secretario de Guerra), Cordell Hull (Secretario de Estado) y Frank Knox (Secretario de Marina). El tema principal fue la falta de destructores de Gran Bretaña y la posibilidad de encontrar una fórmula para la transferencia de cincuenta destructores "mayores de edad" a la Royal Navy sin una violación legal de la legislación de neutralidad de Estados Unidos. Lord Lothian apoyó esta campaña y le dijo al presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt el 28 de julio de 1940, y les dijo que Gran Bretaña había entrado en la guerra con 176 destructores y que solo 70 de ellos estaban todavía a flote. Pidió de 40 a 100 destructores y que solo 70 de estos todavía estaban a flote. También solicitó de 40 a 100 destructores y 100 hidroaviones.

El 22 de agosto de 1940, Stephenson informó a Londres que se había acordado el trato del destructor. El acuerdo para la transferencia de 50 destructores estadounidenses envejecidos, a cambio de los derechos de base aérea y naval en Bermuda, Terranova, el Caribe y la Guayana Británica, se anunció el 3 de septiembre de 1940. Las bases se alquilaron por 99 años y los destructores fueron de gran utilidad. valor como trasmitir escorts. Lord Louis Mountbatten, el jefe de operaciones combinadas británico, comentó: "Nos dijeron que el hombre principal responsable del préstamo de los 50 destructores estadounidenses a la Royal Navy en un momento crítico era Bill Stephenson; que había logrado persuadir al presidente que esto era en el interés último de los propios Estados Unidos y se organizaron varios otros préstamos de ese tipo. Estos destructores eran muy importantes para nosotros ... aunque solo eran viejos destructores, lo principal era tener barcos de combate que realmente pudieran protegerse contra y atacar a los submarinos ".

Lord Lothian sufría de una infección renal, pero debido a sus creencias de Científico Cristiano, rechazó el tratamiento médico. Murió el 12 de diciembre de 1940. La autopsia registró la muerte de Lothian al día siguiente como debida a intoxicación urémica. Un político registró que era "otra víctima de la Ciencia Cristiana". Raymond Gram Swing aconsejó a Winston Churchill que nombrara a alguien que tuviera creencias intervencionistas similares a las de Lothian. Ignoró este consejo y nombró al hombre que desarrolló la política de apaciguamiento del ex primer ministro, Lord Halifax.

La opinión estadounidense sigue siendo ... No tengo ninguna duda de que el mejor correctivo es la publicidad más completa posible de Inglaterra y Francia a través de los corresponsales estadounidenses importantes y de clase alta de lo que los Aliados están pensando y haciendo.

Si bien ninguna propaganda sigue siendo nuestra palabra de vigilancia en lo que respecta a los Estados Unidos, esto no significa que no estemos haciendo todo lo posible para que la información precisa sobre nuestros objetivos y acciones esté disponible para aquellos que están mal informados.

Lord Lothian fue un maestro de la escena estadounidense. Con sus consejos, comenzó el trabajo de explicar Gran Bretaña a Estados Unidos y, no menos importante, Estados Unidos a los británicos.

Desde el principio, Lothian decidió ampliar los límites de la política de "no propaganda". Comenzó abordando las acusaciones de propaganda de frente: contrastando la propaganda alemana y la publicidad británica.


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Lothian, Philip Henry Kerr, undécimo marqués de

Philip Henry Kerr Lothian, undécimo marqués de (k & # 228r, l & # 333 & # 180 & # 359 & # 295 & # 275 & # 601n), 1882 & # 82111940, estadista británico. Sirvió (1905 & # 821110) en varias comisiones gubernamentales en Sudáfrica y fue miembro del "jardín de infancia" de Milner (ver Milner, Alfred Milner, primer vizconde). Después de su regreso a Inglaterra, editó (1910 & # 821116) el Mesa redonda, una revista académica liberal, que él había ayudado a fundar. Como secretario privado de David Lloyd George (1916 & # 821121) participó activamente en la Conferencia de Paz de París (1919). Heredó su título en 1930, representó al Partido Liberal en el gobierno nacional como canciller del ducado de Lancaster (1931 & # 821132) y se desempeñó (1932) como presidente del comité de franquicias de la India. Lothian abogó por el apaciguamiento de la Alemania nazi hasta 1939, cuando adoptó una vigorosa defensa de la resistencia a Adolf Hitler. Defensor de una cooperación angloamericana más estrecha, fue secretario de Rhodes Trust después de 1925 y fue nombrado embajador en Washington en 1939.

Véase la biografía de J. R. M. Butler (1960).

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Philip Kerr, 11. Marqués de Lothian

Philip Henry Kerr, 11. Marqués de Lothian, KT, CH, PC, meist als Lord Lothian bekannt (* 18 de abril de 1882 en Londres † 12 de diciembre de 1940 en Washington) war ein britischer Politiker, Journalist und Diplomat. Er war einer der Gründer der Federal Union und ein wichtiger Vordenker des europäischen Föderalismus. Zugleich war er einer der Hauptvertreter der britischen Appeasement-Politik in den 1930er Jahren. Den Adelstitel Marqués de Lothian erbte er 1930 von seinem Cousin Robert Kerr.

Philip Kerr war der Sohn von Lord Ralph Drury Kerr und Enkel von John Kerr, 7. Marqués de Lothian. Nach einer Ausbildung am New College (Oxford) war er von 1905 bis 1910 Regierungsbeamter in der Kapkolonie. 1910 kehrte er nach England zurück, wo er das Round Table Journal herausgab. 1916 wurde er Privatsekretär des britischen Kriegs- und späteren Premierministers David Lloyd George 1919 nahm er an der Pariser Friedenskonferenz teil. Für diese Tätigkeit wurde er im März 1920 in den Order of the Companions of Honor aufgenommen. Während der zwanziger Jahre kritisierte Lord Lothian mehrfach den Vertrag von Versailles, der zu schlechte Bedingungen für Deutschland gestellt habe.

Zusammen mit verschiedenen anderen ehemaligen Kolonialbeamten (die nach dem südafrikanischen Gouverneur Alfred Milner als Milner's Kindergarten bezeichnet wurden), setzte sich Lord Lothian für weitreichende Reformen ein, die den Kolonien eingrößechtres solidarios de las naciones de la Commonwealth. Dabei war Lord Lothian, anders als die meisten anderen Kolonialbeamten, auch in Rassenfragen eher liberal eingestellt und sympathisierte mit der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung um Mahatma Gandhi. Zugleich bemühte er sich um eine Verbesserung der anglo-amerikanischen Beziehungen.

Aus einer katholischen Familie stammend, entfernte sich Lord Lothian im Lauf der Zeit von dieser Konfession und schloss sich, beeinflusst durch Nancy Astor, der Christian Science an.

Von 1921 bis 1922 leitete Lord Lothian die United Newspapers. 1931 war er für vier Monate Canciller del Ducado de Lancaster und danach bis 1932 Unterstaatssekretär für Indien in der britischen Regierung. 1936 half er der amerikanischen Zeitung Washington Post, die Affäre des britischen Königs Eduard VIII. mit Wallis Simpson aufzudecken, die zur Abdankung Eduards VIII. führte.

In den 1930er Jahren näherte sich Lord Lothian den Ideen des europäischen Föderalismus an, in denen er angesichts der politischen Krise die einzige Möglichkeit zur Verhinderung eines neuen Weltkriegs sah. 1935 hielt er eine bekannt gewordene Rede mit dem Titel El pacifismo no es suficiente (ni tampoco el patriotismo) ("Pazifismus genügt nicht (und Patriotismus auch nicht)"), in der er erklärte, ein System souveräner Nationalstaaten müsse auch bei eigentlich friedliebenden Regierungen zwangsläufig zu einem Krieg führen. Er forderte die Umwandlung des Völkerbunds in einen föderalen Staat. Nachdem Lord Lothian aufgrund seiner Sympathien für Deutschland als Mitglied des Cliveden Set die britische Appeasement-Politik unterstützt hatte, verstärkte er nach dem Münchner Abkommen 1938 seine Bemühungen um eine föderale Organización Europas. Hierzu gründete er en noviembre de 1938 zusammen mit Lionel Curtis die Federal Union, eine der ersten nationalen Organisationen zur Förderung des europäischen Föderalismus.

1939 bis 1940 guerra Lord Lothian britischer Botschafter en den USA. 1940 starb er an einer Krankheit, nachdem er aufgrund seiner religiösen Überzeugungen eine medizinische Versorgung abgelehnt hatte. Da er bis zum Ende seines Lebens unverheiratet geblieben war und keine Kinder hatte, ging der Adelstitel der Familie nach seinem Tod an seinen Primo Peter Kerr über.


Un sabor de la India

Jawaharlal Nehru, el primer Primer Ministro de la India y su hija Indira Keystone Pictures USA / Alamy Stock Photo

Blickling cuenta una nueva historia este año a medida que aumentamos el volumen sobre la conexión de la finca con la independencia de la India. Llevaremos a los visitantes en el tiempo hasta julio de 1938 y una fiesta en una casa de campo donde entre los invitados se encuentran el primer primer ministro de la India, Jawaharlal Nehru y su hija, Indira.

"Tryst with Destiny" fue un discurso pronunciado por Jawaharlal Nehru, el primer primer ministro de la India, en vísperas de la independencia de la India en agosto de 1947. Para conmemorar el 70 aniversario de la aprobación de la Ley de Independencia de la India, este año estamos explorando la historia de la breve pero poderosa conexión de Lord Lothian con la historia de la India.

El último propietario privado de Blickling Estate, Philip Henry Kerr, undécimo marqués de Lothian, fue un político, diplomático y editor de un periódico británico. Se convirtió en subsecretario de Estado de la India en 1931 y su interés por el movimiento independentista se mantuvo hasta su muerte nueve años después.

Visitó la India por primera vez en 1912, y como delegado de la Mesa Redonda durante la cual se discutió la 'cuestión de la India', conoció a Mahatma Ghandi.

Este año llevaremos a los visitantes al pasado hasta julio de 1938 y una fiesta en una casa de campo. Escuchará algunas opiniones interesantes sobre el pensamiento de la época expresadas por Lord Lothian y sus influyentes contemporáneos.

Hay nuevos accesorios en la casa, comida temática en los cafés, nueva interpretación disfrazada con & # 39The Jewel in the Crown & # 39 & # 39 y plantando en el jardín para reflejar la bandera nacional de la India.

La casa está abierta los 7 días de la semana del 6 de marzo al 29 de octubre.


Clan Kerr

Lema del clan Kerr: Sero Sed Serio (tarde, pero en serio).

Historia del clan Kerr:
Los Kerr aparecen en Scottish Borders en el siglo XIV, el nombre se origina en Normandía con la llegada a Escocia de dos hermanos, Ralph y John. La rama de Roxburgh deletrea el nombre Ker, la rama de Lothian, Kerr. Los Kerrs de Ferniehirst afirman descender de Ralph, y los Ker de Cessford, de John. El primero del nombre registrado en Escocia es Johannes Ker, c.1190.

En 1451, Andrew Ker de Cessford recibió una Carta para la Baronía de Old Roxburgh, y seis años más tarde fue nombrado Guardián de las Marcas. Mientras tanto, Sir Andrew Kerr de Ferniehirst recibió una Carta Real para la Baronía de Oxnam y fue nombrado Guardián de las Marcas del Medio. En 1502, este nombramiento pasó a su pariente, Sir Andrew Ker de Cessford, quien en 1526 fue asesinado mientras escoltaba a James V a Edimburgo.

Sir Andrew Kerr del nieto de Ferniehirst, Mark Kerr, hizo erigir la Abadía de Newbattle como Señorío Temporal en 1587 y fue nombrado Conde de Lothian en 1606. En 1621, otro Sir Andrew Kerr de Ferniehirst se convirtió en Lord Jedburgh. A partir de entonces, los títulos y honores otorgados a las líneas Ferniehirst y Cessford de la familia Ker (r) tienden a volverse un poco confusos.

Sir Robert Ker de Cessford fue nombrado conde de Roxburghe en 1616. En 1707, el quinto conde de Roxburghe fue nombrado duque de Roxburghe por su apoyo al Acta de Unión entre Inglaterra y Escocia. A través del matrimonio, la familia Roxburghe adquirió posteriormente el apellido compuesto de Innes-Ker.

En 1624, el 2do Conde de Lothian murió sin descendencia masculina, y su heredera, Anne, Condesa de Lothian se casó con Sir William Kerr, también de la rama Ferniehirst, un celoso Covenanter que en 1633 fue nombrado Conde de Ancram. Su hijo heredó ambos condados. En 1701, Robert, cuarto conde de Lothian, fue nombrado primer marqués de Lothian.

John Ker de Kersland (1673-1726) fue un agente doble para el gobierno y los jacobitas durante el Levantamiento de 1715. Schomberg Henry, noveno marqués de Lothian (1883-1900), fue secretario de Estado de Escocia y guardián del Gran Sello, 1887-92. Philip, undécimo marqués de Lothian (1882-1940), fue embajador extraordinario en Washington de 1939 a 1940. El decimotercer marqués de Lothian, que usa el nombre de Michael Ancram, es un ex ministro del gabinete británico y ex presidente del Partido Conservador Escocés.

Lugares de interés:
Cessford, Roxburghshire. Construida en el siglo XIV, la torre aquí pasó en 1446 a Andrew Ker, antepasado de los duques de Roxburghe.

Castillo de Ferniehirst, cerca de Jedburgh, Roxburghshire. Esta fortaleza de Kerr, que data del siglo XV, fue incendiada por el conde de Sussex, pero reconstruida en 1598.

Monteviot, Jedburgh, Roxburghshire. Sede de los marqueses de Lothian.

Newbattle Abbey, cerca de Edimburgo. Fundada por David I, la mansión actual es del siglo XVII. Fue regalado a la Nación por el undécimo marqués de Lothian y hoy funciona como una universidad residencial.

Distribución del apellido en Escocia: El nombre Kerr se encuentra más comúnmente en Renfrewshire, Argyll and Bute, Ayrshire y Dumfries y Galloway (Dumfriesshire, Kirkcudbrightshire y Wigtownshire).


Philip Kerr, XI marqués de Lothian

Era il figlio maggiore del maggiore generale, Lord Ralph Kerr, terzo figlio di John Kerr, VII marchese di Lothian. Sua madre era Lady Anne Fitzalan-Howard, figlia di Henry Fitzalan-Howard, XIV duca di Norfolk e di Augusta Mary Mina Catherine Lyons, figlia del vice-ammiraglio Edmund Lyons, I barone Lyons. Era un nipote di Edmund Fitzalan-Howard, visconte FitzAlan di Derwent, e un pronipote di Richard Lyons, visconte Lyons [1]. Studiò al The Oratory School y al New College.

Kerr prestò servizio in Sudafrica (1905-1910) ed è stato membro di quella che veniva chiamata "Kindergarten di Milner". Nel 1910 ritornò nel Regno Unito per fondare e modificare il Round Table Journal. Nel 1916, è stato nominato segretario privato di David Lloyd George [1] ed è stato attivo nella Conferenza di pace di Parigi.

È Stato segretario del Rhodes Trust (1925-1939). Nel marzo del 1930 successe a suo cugino nel marchesato ed è entrato nella Camera dei lord [1]. Nel maggio seguente anno è stato nominato vice tenente di Midlothian. Dopo la formazione del governo nazionale nell'agosto 1931, è stato nominato Cancelliere del Ducato di Lancaster da Ramsay MacDonald [2]. Nel novembre dello stesso anno è stato nominato Segretario di Stato per l'India, incarico che ha ricoperto fino al 1932 [1].

Lothian riteneva che la Germania era stata trattata ingiustamente e duramente dal Trattato di Versailles e dopo la sua firma è diventato un sostenitore incrollabile della revisione del trattato in favore della Germania (1920-1930), una politica conosciuta come Appeasement.

Nel gennaio del 1935 e nel maggio 1937 si recò in Germania per incontrare Adolf Hitler. Tornato in patria dopo il primo incontro, Lothian affermò che "la Germania non voleva la guerra ed era disposta a rinunciare assolutamente. Semper che si era data una reale uguaglianza" [3].

Dopo che Chamberlain firmò l'accordo di Monaco con Hitler nel 1938, Lothian espresse il suo sollievo e disa che Chamberlain aveva fatto "un lavoro meraviglioso" [4].

Tuttavia, cambiò idea dopo la violazione di Hitler del patto e dell'occupazione della Cecoslovacchia nel marzo 1939.

Nel settembre del 1939, è stato nominato ambasciatore negli Stati Uniti [5], incarico che mantenne fino alla morte l'anno successivo. Era stato un membro del Consiglio della Corona nell'agosto del 1939 [6].

La famiglia Kerr era fedele della Chiesa Cattolica Romana. La sua stretch amicizia con Nancy Astor, lo portò alla loro conversione al Cristianesimo scientista.


Philip Henry Kerr (Lord Lothian) - Historia

1. Un origen noruego: & quotKjarr & quot que significa & quotcopse & quot o & quotsmall wood & quot.
2. Un antiguo origen británico: & quotCaer & quot es el galés de & quotfort & quot, que se encuentra en Carlisle y en varios S.W. Nombres de lugares escoceses, p. Ej. Caerlaverock.
3. Un origen gaélico, de la palabra para "zurdos". (Carrillo).

La teoría gaélica puede descartarse con seguridad ya que el idioma nunca se habló en el territorio de Kerr, y la palabra gaélica para "zurdos" muy probablemente se derive del rasgo familiar bien conocido (ver p. 36). La teoría británica es simplemente creíble, ya que se habló galés en Upper Tweeddale, donde la familia apareció por primera vez en Escocia, hasta finales del siglo XI o principios del XII: más al oeste, sobrevivió incluso más tarde, y los Wallaces de Elderslie, tomando su nombre del idioma, puede haberlo hablado hasta poco antes de las Guerras de Independencia (1296-1328). Pero la tradición familiar está firmemente a favor de la teoría nórdica, que está respaldada por la presencia de & quotKjaers & quot y & quotKjarrs & quot en el área alrededor de Stavanger (nuestra casa original), así como Karrs cerca de St Malo y Carrs en el centro de Lancashire (las siguientes dos etapas en nuestro viaje a las Fronteras).

Según esta teoría, nuestros antepasados ​​remotos abandonaron el sur de Noruega con RoIf the Ganger, o Rollo the Walker, llamado así porque era demasiado alto y de piernas largas para montar, y por lo tanto se adelantó a sus berserkers en sus ponis. Se establecieron en el ángulo de Bretaña y la península de Cherburgo en 911, luego llegaron a Inglaterra en 1066 en el séquito de De Bruys, el antepasado de Bruces. Tomó tierras cerca de Preston y recibieron una pequeña parte de ellas como sus guardabosques, una ocupación que también siguió John Ker de Stobo cuatro generaciones más tarde (el & quot; Cazador de Swynhope & quot y el primer escocés registrado en llevar nuestro nombre; se menciona como participante en un estudio de la tierra tosco y listo, o & quot; operambulación & quot, en 1190). Uno de sus hijos tenía tierras en Eliston en 1230 más o menos, y otros miembros de la familia están registrados en Selkirkshire una generación o dos más tarde, entre ellos Nicol Kerr, quien firmó el Ragman Roll (una lista de terratenientes escoceses que rinden homenaje a Edward I ) en 1296. Desde el siglo XIV en adelante, Kerrs, de diversas escrituras, son numerosos en las fronteras, ocupando tierras en Altonburn, Crailing, Kersheugh (a menos de una milla de Ferniehirst) y varios otros lugares, uno de ellos es Sheriff de Roxburgh hacia el finales del siglo XIV, mientras que otros se encuentran en Ayrshire, Stirlingshire y otros lugares.

Jedforest (el valle superior de Jed) se convirtió en propiedad de Kerr en 1457 cuando Andrew Kerr, el creador de nuestra tradición zurda (ver p. 36) la obtuvo del Conde de Angus a cambio de convertirse en el & quot; hombre & quot o vasallo del Conde. . Ferniehirst, o más bien el terreno en el que se encuentra, ya parece haber pertenecido a otro Kerr, Thomas de Kersheugh, cuya hija y heredera, Margaret, se casó con su pariente Thomas Kerr de Smailholm, hijo menor de Andrew Kerr, mencionado anteriormente. A partir de entonces, el joven Thomas (de Smailholm) se describió a sí mismo como "de Ferniehirst". Fue nombrado caballero y construyó el castillo Ferniehirst original (muy probablemente en o cerca del sitio de una anterior & quot; torre de peel & quot) en o alrededor de 1470: fue destruido y reconstruido varias veces, pero el castillo actual, que data de finales del siglo XVI, incorpora algo de la estructura original y gran parte de la piedra original.

Una disputa sobre la antigüedad entre las dos ramas principales de la familia, Ferniehirst y Cessford, comenzó por esta época. Ocasionalmente degeneró en una disputa, pero no impidió los matrimonios mixtos bastante frecuentes. Es difícil ser imparcial al respecto, pero se deben tener en cuenta los siguientes puntos:

1. Si bien Sir Thomas Kerr de Ferniehirst era el hermano menor de Walter Ker de Cessford, heredó la tierra en la que construyó el castillo a través de su matrimonio con Margaret Ker de Kersheugh y Ferniehirst. Su hijo "Papá" Kerr (ver más abajo) continuó así la línea de Kersheugh, y la familia de hecho se había establecido en Kersheugh más tiempo que en Cessford.

2. En cualquier caso, la línea de Cessford terminó con dos hijas, una de las cuales se casó con el jefe de Ferniehirst Kerrs. El duque de Roxburghe, heredero de los Cessford Kers, desciende de la hija menor y lleva el apellido de doble cañón de Innes-Ker.El primer Ker en poseer las antiguas tierras de la abadía de Kelso fue Robert Ker de Cessford, quien estaba fuertemente apegado a King James VI y fue nombrado caballero por él. Era un caballero de la alcoba y acompañó a James en su viaje hacia el sur para ser coronado como James I de Inglaterra. Fue creado Lord Ker de Cessford y Conde de Roxburgh en 1616 con el resto de sus herederos varones. De su primera esposa tuvo un solo hijo que murió joven y dos hijas, la mayor de las cuales se casó con el segundo conde de Perth. By his second marriage he had another son, Harry Lord Ker, who also pre-deceased his father leaving three daughters, one married to Sir William Drummond, another to the Earl of Wigtoun and the youngest to Sir James Innes of that Ilk, 3rd Baronet.

Sir Thomas Kerr of Ferniehirst (and originally of Smailholm) is mainly known to history through his involvement in several lawsuits. He died before his wife, the heiress of Kersheugh and Ferniehirst, and was the father of Sir Andrew ( Dand ) Kerr of Ferniehirst (see below) as well as Thomas Kerr, Abbot of Kelso and several other children.

"Dand" Kerr (1470-1545) was one of the great Border "characters" of his time, with a long and turbulent career. At one stage he was fined and imprisoned, though the offence is not known, but only the fact that this fine was later remitted. He acquired, in two stages, the lands and Barony of Oxnam, and thus qualified to sit in the Scottish Parliament held a few days before the battle of Flodden. Though the battle, taken as a whole, was one of the worst disasters ever suffered by Scotland, the Borderers won their share of it, but the King was dead and the greater part of his army slaughtered before they returned to the scene. Lord Home, their leader, then brought what was left of it back to Edinburgh: "Dand", who had been involved in the successful part of the action, seized Kelso Abbey the same evening and installed his brother Thomas as Abbot. This was widely seen as a piece of shameless nepotism, but it is likely enough that if Sir Andrew and his brother had not got there first, someone else would most probably the English.

A few years later, one of Sir Andrew s friends fought a pitched battle, "The Raid of Jedwood Forest" with his kinsman, Walter Ker of Cessford, who was then Warden of the Middle March the issue being "Dand s" right to hold court in the Forest, and thus to profit from any fines levied there. In 1523 his castle, Ferniehirst, was taken by a large English force under the Earl of Surrey (the victor of Flodden) and Lord Dacre but several hundred of Dacre s horses were stampeded at night by the Kerr women. "Dand" continued to hold the Ferniehirst title, acquired other lands to make up for his loss and took his turn as Warden of the Middle March and Provost of Jedburgh, as did several of his descendants. The Wardenship generally alternated between Ferniehirst and Cessford, until it was abolished by James VI following the Union of the Crowns the Provostship was held by Ferniehirst or by members of other local families: at the last Border Battle, commemorated in the annual Redeswire Ride and ceremony on the first Saturday in July, Ferniehirst was Warden (but represented by his Depute) and Rutherford was Provost: the Warden on the other side was Sir John Forster, already 75, who died aged over 100, a few months before his Queen.

Ferniehirst was recaptured in 1548, a few years after Dand s death, by his son Sir John Kerr, with some assistance from a French "task force" under the Sieur d Esse. The English governor of the castle and his men had committed unspeakable atrocities in the neighbourhood, and many tried to save themselves by surrendering to the French rather than the Scots, but the latter, after slaughtering their own prisoners, "bought" the others from their allies, trading in valuable horses and weapons for the purpose, and killed them as well, afterwards playing handball with the Englishmen s severed heads. This is commemorated by the annual "Ba Game", in which the leather "ba " represents an Englishman s head and streamers attached to it at the start but soon lost in the general scramble are supposed to be the Englishman s hair. It is further commemorated by the Ferniehirst Ride and ceremony, the centre-piece of the Jethart Festival. Sir John later sat in the Scottish Parliament and was one of the authors of a letter urging Elizabeth of England to marry the Earl of Arran. (Many other suitors were put forward, by various interests: they included the King of Spain and several French princes, but she preferred to keep them all guessing and to rule her own kingdom without anyone else telling her what to do.) Sir John s brother Robert of Ancram, was the ancestor of the Earls of Ancram and of the Marquesses of Lothian (see p. 29), to whom the Ferniehirst title passed when the direct line of descent from Sir John died out in the seventeenth century.

Sir John s son, Sir Thomas Kerr of Ferniehirst, was noted for his loyalty to Mary Queen of Scots, for whom he built a fortified house in the centre of Jedburgh. He raised the Royal Standard for her in Dumfries, helping her and her husband Darnley to put down an insurrection by a group of her nobles (she won at the time but was forced into exile a few years later). Subsequently he sheltered her English supporters after the rising of the Northern Earls (1568) and rescued Lady Northumberland, stranded by illness in a Liddesdale outlaw s hide-out. He helped his father-in-law, Kirkcaldy of Grange, to defend Edinburgh Castle in the Queen s name when it was taken he lost precious family documents which were never seen again, but at least he escaped with his life (Kirkcaldy was beheaded) and fled abroad for some years. He was re-instated in his lands by James VI when the young King came of age and took power into his own hands. The townsmen of Jedburgh supported the Regent Morton (later also beheaded) against Mary they "debagged" and publicly caned a herald sent out by Ferniehirst to read out a proclamation of loyalty to the Queen, also compelling him to eat his document.

From her English prison, Mary wrote to Sir Thomas, thanking him for his past services and encouraging him to keep up his loyalty. She seems to have taken a particular liking to his young son Andrew, the first Lord Jedburgh, and may have knighted him while still a child, for she asks in particular to be remembered to "Sir Andrew".

Briefly imprisoned after the fall of Edinburgh Castle, Sir Thomas was in exile and unable to perform his duties as Warden at the time of the last major clash on the Border, the Raid of Redeswire. This incident developed on one of the "days of truce" when the Wardens or their deputes met to resolve various local problems and to exchange or hang wanted criminals. On this occasion the English Warden complained that the Scots had failed to hand over a thief known as "Farnstein" (not a German refugee or mercenary, as one might think, but an Englishman whose real name was Robson). This led to mutual insults, no doubt aggravated by the fact that both sides had been liquidating a great deal of liquid. The argument grew into a scuffle and the scuffle grew into a fight. Eventually the Jedburgh men arrived in strength and dispersed the English, killing a few and capturing others, who were later released without ransom.

Though he missed this particular incident, Sir Thomas was involved in a similar but smaller affray, on almost the same spot, ten years later. By then he was back in office as Warden of the Middle March Forster, now 84, was still in charge on the other side, and Forster s son-in-law, who was also a son of the Earl of Bedford, was killed. Elizabeth Tudor was not amused, and insisted on Ferniehirst s punishment, though the rights and wrongs of the whole affair were by no means clear. Being anxious to succeed to the English throne, James VI sought to ingratiate himself with her, and exiled Sir Thomas to Aberdeen, where he died within a year. The inscription on his memorial in Jedburgh Abbey reads "Sir THOMAS KERR of Fernyherst, Warden of the Marches, Provost of Edinburgh and Jedburgh, Father of Andrew Lord Jedburgh, Sir James Kerr of Creylin (Crailing) and Robert Earl of Somerset. He died at Aberdeen on March 31, 1586 and lies buried before the Communion Table. He was a man of action and perfit loyaltie and constancie to Queen Marie in all her troubles. He suffered 14 years banishment besides forfaulter (forfeiture) of his lands. He was restored to his estates and honours by King James the Sext."

Sir Thomas married twice. His children by his first wife, Janet Kirkcaldy, included Sir Andrew of Ferniehirst, first Lord Jedburgh (see below) and William, who took the name of Kirkcaldy to continue his mother s line his children, however, reverted to Kerr, having failed to inherit the Grange property. By his second marriage, to Janet Scott, Sir Thomas was the father of Sir James Kerr of Crailing (father of the second Lord Jedburgh) and of Robert Can, Earl of Somerset (see below). He had several other children by both his wives.

Border warfare having died down after Redeswire (though there was a final flare-up on the West March, the "Ill Week" of 1603), Sir Andrew Kerr rebuilt Ferniehirst in 1598. It had been largely destroyed by the English allies of Mary s Scottish enemies, following on Sir Thomas s support for the Northern Earls in 1569 and a Scottish invasion of the English Middle March in 1570. Despite extensive restoration towards the end of the 19th Century, the Castle now is essentially Ferniehirst as rebuilt by Sir Andrew, though some parts (The Chambers and Cellars) date back to 1470 or thereabouts.

Sir Andrew was Provost of Jedburgh for many years, but never became Warden, the office having been abolished following on the Union of the Crowns. He held several Court and administrative posts, and was created Lord Jedburgh in 1622. His half-brother Robert Carr (who adopted the English spelling of the name when he migrated to England with the King) was James favourite and possibly the best-known member of the family to those who have only a superficial knowledge of English history, and none of Scottish history. This he achieved by contributing to James personal unpopularity in his new Kingdom, and to the tension that gradually built up against the Stuarts, culminating in the Civil War and the "execution" of Charles I. School textbooks, however, have been less than fair to him, and grossly unfair to James VI and I a competent ruler of his own original kingdom even if he did not understand England well enough to be a real success there, and a man of great intellectual ability.

First a page and then a Groom of the Bedchamber, Robert Can was sent to France by the King to improve his education. He was injured while dismounting at a tournament, soon after his return to England the King ordered him to be lodged at Court while he recovered and visited him frequently it was at this time that he became the royal favourite, rather than one of several bright young men in the King s entourage. Thereafter he accumulated offices and influence, to the great disgust of Englishmen who felt these good things should have come to them instead. Soon after being created Earl of Somerset (1613) he married Lady Frances Howard, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk but royal favour did not last much longer, the Somersets being jointly tried for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, sentenced to death, but reprieved and released, then pardoned within a few years. The evidence against them was by no means conclusive, and may well have been fabricated by personal enemies. They had one daughter, Anne, who married Lord Russell, later Earl and then first Duke of Bedford.

The second Lord Jedburgh, as we have seen, was the half-brother of the, first: his son was the third holder of the title, which then passed to the Ancram branch of the family, descended from Robert Ken of Woodhead and Ancrum, second surviving son of "Dand" Ken. This branch included, in the seventeenth century, two remarkable men, Robert, first Earl of Ancram (1578-1654) and his son William, who was created third Earl of Lothian, on his marriage to the Countess of Lothian in her own right (see p. 30) and succeeded to the Ancram title on his father s death. They took opposite sides in the Civil War, as did the Verneys in England (the father being a Royalist in both cases) but this did not cause any personal ill-feeling between them, and they remained close in spite of politics.

Robert, Earl of Ancram, was the great-grandson of "Dand" Kerr, grandson of Robert of Woodheid and Ancram, and son of William Kerr of Woodhead and Ancram, murdered in 1590 by his cousin Cessford (later Earl of Roxburghe), at the instigation of Lady Cessford, his mother (they had been in dispute about who should be responsible for the interests of young Andrew Kerr, later the first Lord Jedburgh though Sir Andrew had by now come of age, the bitterness remained). Robert thus became head of his branch of the family at the age of 12, retaining this position for sixty-five years. Cessford fled, and had to make ample compensation to Robert before he could return home. These added resources enabled Robert to spend some years in study, most probably abroad he then returned to the Borders and briefly held the office of Provost of Jedburgh. He followed King James to England, as did his cousin Robert Carr (later Earl of Somerset) and took up a post in the household of Henry, Prince of Wales, went abroad again, then returned to a higher position in Prince Henry s household, being simultaneously Captain of the King s Guard and spending most of his time in Scotland, where he made various improvements to Ancrum House, originally built by his grandfather. When Prince Henry died, Robert was appointed "Gentleman of the Bedchamber" (senior personal attendant) to Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I. The Captaincy of the Guard then passed to Andrew Kerr of Oxnam, son of Sir Andrew Kerr of Ferniehirst, while Robert returned to England. He was involved in a duel with Charles Maxwell (who had deliberately picked a quarrel with him in the hope of pleasing the Duke of Buckingham) and killed his man, for which he was tried at the Cambridge Assizes and found guilty of manslaughter. King James pardoned him, however, Maxwell being a known and inveterate troublemaker, but Prince Charles decided it would be better for him to leave the country for six months. He was then fully restored to favour, and accompanied Charles (and Buckingham with whom he must evidently have been reconciled) on a semi-secret visit to Madrid. The object of the exercise was to win a Spanish bride for Charles, and they did it in true Spanish style, serenading the Infanta with their guitars, but to no avail. Charles probably realised, in due course, that the Spanish marriage would have been a mistake, not to say a disaster, and did not hold this failure against his friends soon afterwards Robert was given part of the Lothian estates, which had fallen to the King when the second Earl of Lothian died without sons and heavily in debt: Lothian s daughter, who had inherited the title and the rest of the property, later married Robert s eldest son William. Charles succeeded his father as King a few months later and Sir Robert, who had been knighted about 1606, became one of the most important men at Court though relatively inconspicuous being mainly concerned with advising the King on Scottish affairs and on Court appointments, rather than in helping him to hold his own against successive Parliaments or govern England without them.

Sir William having become Earl of Lothian in 1630, it was inappropriate that the son should be an Earl while his father was only a knight, and Sir Robert was raised to the same dignity in 1633, as Earl of Ancram, on the occasion of Charles Scottish coronation. He began to have serious financial problems, however, having spent a great deal on improvements to Ancrum House before handing it over to his son, who was now on opposite sides politically, being one of the leaders of the Covenanting party, who resisted Charles attempts to establish the English form of worship in Scotland. Ancram and Lothian now seldom met, as the father was now more or less permanently resident in London and the son in Scotland one of the rare occasions was in 1643, when Lothian passed through on his way to France, after a short-lived agreement had been negotiated between the Covenanters and the King. It did not last long, however, and Charles arrested the younger Earl on his way back through Oxford his father then had considerable trouble in getting him released.

After the judicial murder of Charles I, Ancram returned to Scotland for some months and then, when there appeared to be no prospect of a Stuart restoration in the meantime, he retired to Holland. The House of Lords having been abolished, he could no longer claim privilege of Parliament against his creditors, and in any event he did not care to live under the r gime that had killed his King and his friend. He was consoled by frequent visits to and from his grandsons, Lord Lothian s sons, who were studying in Leyden while he spent his last years in Amsterdam but advised their father to take them away, as they had learnt all they were likely to learn there, and were in constant danger of catching "a cruel ague or fever" due to the damp climate. When Lothian took his advice, however, the loneliness became too much for him, and he died within a few weeks.

As we have seen, Robert s son, the third Earl of Lothian, recombined the Cessford and Ferniehirst lines through his marriage to the Countess of Lothian. Her great-grandfather, Mark Ker, of the Cessford branch of the family, had been Abbot of Newbattle at the Reformation. He followed the new religion and took the Abbey out of the Church s hands, becoming its Commendator as did several other holders of Church property at the time. His son succeeded him as Commendator and was later created the first Earl of Lothian. The first Earl was succeeded by his son, but he only left two daughters, the elder becoming Countess in her own right. However, she got very little in practice except the title itself. Part of the Lothian estates could only go to male heirs, and therefore, escheated to the King, who made it over to Robert Kerr of Ancram, as we have seen, while most of her share was seized by her late father s creditors, but redeemed by Ancram, her father-in-law. The third Earl, her husband, was one of the leaders of the Covenanting party, but went to London to protest against the "frial" and judicial murder of the King. He was sent back to Scotland under escort. His son Robert, the fourth Earl, was one of those who invited William of Orange to take over the two kingdoms. He was raised to the rank of Marquis and died a few years before the Treaty of Union which his eldest son, the second Marquis, strongly supported. Another son, Lord Mark Kerr, had a long military career (sixty years of actual service), rising to be a general, as did the 4th Marquis, Lord Mark s great-nephew. The title of Lord Jedburgh and the lairdship of Ferniehirst passed to the fourth Earl of Lothian (later first Marquis) when the third Lord Jedburgh (sometimes described as second Lord Jedburgh as his father apparently did not use the title) died childless in 1692.

Thereafter the "Jedburgh" title was normally used as a subsidiary title by the Marquis of Lothian, while that of Earl of Ancram has normally been used, at any given time, by the Marquis s heir, often sitting in the House of Commons while his father sat in the Lords (as is now the case). The sixth Marquis of Lothian, while Earl of Ancram in his father s lifetime, lived at Ferniehirst and is the last recorded member of the family to have done so. Another Earl of Ancram, who did not live to take up the Lothian title (he was killed in a shooting accident in Australia, 1895) spent a great deal of money on restoring Ferniehirst towards the end of the nineteenth century, and it seems clear that he envisaged living there, but the work was interrupted on his death. Apart from recent work (see p. 7) the general appearance of Ferniehirst is very much as he left it.

The sixth Marquis also erected the Waterloo Monument at Penielheugh, on the ridge between the Teviot and the Tweed a few miles north of Jedburgh. Bonfires are lit there on important public and family occasions.

The seventh and eighth Marquesses both died at a comparatively early age culling off the promise of brilliant public careers. Schomberg, ninth Marquis of Lothian, became Secretary of State for Scotland his nephew Philip, the eleventh Marquis, was a member of Milner s group of talented young administrators in South Africa after the Boer War known as the Kindergarten". He later served as Secretary to Lloyd George and helped to draft the Treaty of Versailles, and died as British Ambassador in Washington during World War II. He was succeeded by his cousin, the 12th Marquis (a descendant of the 7th). Peter Lothian and his son Michael Ancram have both held Ministerial appointments in Conservative Governments (as did Schomberg, the 9th Marquis, whereas the 11th was a lifelong Liberal) thus continuing the tradition of public service begun when Ferniehirst Castle was built. Michael Ancram, at the beginning of his Political career, is Under-Secretary of State, Scottish Office, and Lord Lothian, having been Under-Secretary of State, Foreign Office, ended his career in public service as Lord Warden of the Duchy of Cornwall for the Prince of Wales.

1 .One of the Ayrshire Kerrs was a close friend and companion of Sir William Wallace, and was killed trying to save him from arrest at Robroyston.

2.The most usual spellings in Scotland are Kerr and Ker, the former acknowledging Lothian as their Chief, and the others Roxburghe, but Keir, Carr and Carre are other versions of the name The spelling Can is frequent among English bearers of the name, whether they came direct from the original "centre of dispersal" near Preston, or "re-migrated" to Northumbria and other areas from Scotland. Among well known "re-migrants" are Sir Robert Can (or Kerr), later Earl of Somerset (see p. 27) and another Sir Robert Can (with the English spelling only) who helped to capture New Amsterdam from the Dutch and renamed it New York. There are also three different pronunciations: the historically correct one, on the basis of Norwegian descent (Kjan) is identical with "car": it is now mainly used by Englishmen, by the Scottish aristocracy and by many who emigrated to America, especially those who went there at an early date. The usual pronunciation in Scotland is similar to "care". The more usual (but not universal) American pronunciation is identical with "cur" (a mongrel dog!) and is seldom heard in Scotland.

3.Some authorities mention 1490 as the date, and Ferniehirst may well have been built in several stages, as many other castles were.

4.There is some doubt as to whether the original Ferniehirst was built by Sir Thomas or by his father-in-law, Thomas Kerr of Kersheugh. It may have been a joint enterprise.

5.The date of his death is sometimes given as 1524, but D.N.B. and "The Scots on 1545. peerage" agree

6.The rout of Solway Moss (1542) was arguably even worse. The Scots suffered casualties on much the same scale as Flodden, mainly drowned rather than killed in action, but also including a large number of prisoners who had to be ransomed, thus ruining their families. At Flodden, honour at least was saved, those who were not slain withdrew in good order, and there were enough of them left to dissuade the English from launching a full-scale invasion.

7.This is now known as Mary Queen of Scots House, and is one of the principal sights of the town. The Queen spent some weeks there convalescing from pneumonia, which she had caught on the long ride to Hermitage Castle, Bothwell s stronghold near Newcastleton. While the house was being built (and before her illness) she stayed at the Spread Eagle in Jedburgh High Street. which is a few months older.

8.The bothy where she was concealed belonged to "Jock o the Side" who had promised to protect her against his fellow-outlaws one of these, however. Black Ormiston, robbed her as soon as Jock and Northumberland himself were both away.

9. .Sir Thomas Kerr s granddaughter, Lady Anne Can, the only daughter of James favourite, married a later Earl of Bedford and the subsequent Dukes of Bedford were descended from her.

10.James VI and I wrote several books, and was probably the first to guess at a link between smoking (a new habit, to which he greatly objected) and cancer this link was only confirmed by medical research some 350 years later. He gave the impetus to the translation of the Authorised Version of the Bible, which is dedicated to him, frequently attended meetings of the committee in charge of this work, and may have translated several of the Psalms.

11.She had previously been married to the Earl of Essex, but had obtained a divorce from him on the grounds that "he was impotent with no woman except her".

12.There is some disagreement among the authorities as to how the Lords Jedburgh should be numbered, due to the fact that not all those who were entitled to the title in fact used it.

13.George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, was James favourite after Robert Can he Was English, and jealous of the King s Scottish cronies, and Maxwell evidently thought the new favourite would do something for him, if he got rid of the old favourite s cousin. However, Maxwell was killed in the duel Buckingham Was assassinated a few years later, and Ancram outlived them both by a Whole geneation.

14.Scotland and England were still two kingdoms, though with only one King (Austria and Hungary had a similar relationship until 1918). Charles I was therefore crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey (1625) and King of Scots at Scone. Charles II, his eldest son, was also crowned at Scone (1650) ten years before his English coronation. This was the last Scottish coronation as James VII & II did not feel it safe to come to this country during his brief reign, and James VIII and Ill (otherwise known as the Old Pretender ) was never crowned, though he visited Scotland briefly in 1715-16.

15.Incorrectly described as an "execution" in most history books. It was murder, because the King s "trial" was itself illegal. In the first place the King could not lawfully be "fried" by anyone secondly if he could have been tried, the House of Lords would have been the only competent body for that purpose thirdly he was "fried" for an "offence" which was non-existent at the time when he was alleged to have committed it (i.e. making war on his own people), and finally the "judges" had already decided the outcome in advance. Those of them who were still alive at the Restoration were themselves fried and executed for treason.

15a.The 4th Marquis fought in Cumberland s army at Culloden. His brother, Lord Robert Kerr, was the only officer killed on the "Hanoverian" or "English" side at Culloden.

16.The present Earl, however, seldom uses his title, and prefers to be known as "Mr" Ancram or "Michael Ancram", a habit he acquired while practising as an advocate in the Scottish Courts. Scottish Judges have the title of "Lord" with their surname or a territorial designation (though they do not sit in the House of Lords), and it would therefore be confusing for an advocate to be referred to in the same way during a frial.

17.For those who are unfamiliar with Scottish administrative arrangements it should be explained that, while Scotland and England form part of the same State, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, various subjects which in England come under different Cabinet Ministers (Home Secretary, Secretary of State for Education and Science, Minister of Housing. Health, etc.) are in Scotland all placed under the authority of the Scottish Office, headed by the Secretary of State for Scotland. In the nineteenth century he was often a peer today he is always an MP representing a Scottish constituency, assisted by a team of Junior Ministers, some of whom are MPs while others are peers. But there is, only one Foreign Secretary and only one Secretary of State for Defence.


Number 10 under Lloyd George 1916-1922

No previous Prime Minister ran 10 Downing Street like David Lloyd George. His predecessors had governed conventionally he launched a revolution as profound as that under Henry VIII. This was partly because he headed a wartime coalition government, which called for an unusual degree of direction from the Prime Minister. But it was also personal. Lloyd George, the Welsh Baptist outsider, detached from the conventions of the unwritten British constitution, believed in leadership. His heroes were strong leaders: Oliver Cromwell, Napoleon Bonaparte, Abraham Lincoln. His years at Number 10 saw Britain’s first venture in prime ministerial government, run in the presidential mode.

Privately, Number 10 was not a happy place. Lloyd George’s wife, Margaret, found it cold and inconvenient, although the introduction of bathrooms by Margot Asquith, wife of the previous Prime Minister, had made it more bearable. But the deeper cause of unhappiness behind the black door lay in Lloyd George’s unorthodox private life: his secretary, Frances Stevenson, was also his mistress. They were abetted by the formidable housekeeper, Sarah Jones, a veritable Welsh dragon, who acted as a confidential go-between, conveying messages between them.

From the outset, Lloyd George assumed total control in a way unknown to Herbert Henry Asquith or his predecessors. He appointed a five-man War Cabinet to take major strategic decisions. He created a new Cabinet Secretariat based in nearby Whitehall Gardens, headed by Sir Maurice Hankey and his Welsh deputy Thomas Jones, to act as a central organising machine and keep the minutes: the beginnings of today’s Cabinet Office. And, impinging directly on Number 10, Lloyd George chose his own secretariat, a novel group of special advisers, initially housed in temporary huts in the gardens of Number 10. This ‘Garden Suburb’ consisted of five characteristic advisers: Philip Kerr (later Lord Lothian) who focussed on foreign policy, Professor Adams, a Professor of All Souls, Oxford, a Welsh shipping statistician, Sir Joseph Davies, and two millionaires: Waldorf Astor, the American owner of The Observer, and David Davies, a Welsh industrial baron. Cecil Harmsworth, younger brother of the press baron Lord Northcliffe, later replaced David Davies. The precise role of the Garden Suburb was never defined, but it was a powerful symbol of the new centralisation of government. It had an impact at first in foreign affairs, through Kerr, Irish policy through Adams, and food production, through Astor. It continued until the end of the war in December 1918 but its influence on the role of Number 10 was lasting.

As head of a Coalition mainly dominated by the Unionists (Conservatives), and as a man who did not lead a political party himself, Lloyd George was intensely active within the wartime coalition. A key episode was bringing Winston Churchill, at this stage an important Liberal, back into the Cabinet in July 1917. There were important meetings to discuss the Coalition’s manifesto and the sharing-out of seats between the Unionists and Liberals in the Coalition at the next general election (in which candidates were notoriously given a ‘coupon’ to show they had Coalition support). An emotional moment came on 11 November 1918 with the calling of the armistice bringing the First World War to an end. Lloyd George shouted to the crowds congregating outside in Downing Street: ‘this war will soon be over.’ Dr. Weizmann, the Zionist leader, champion of a national home for Jews, called in to have lunch and found Lloyd George lost in thought, reading the psalms, almost in tears. Soon after, there was a parliamentary service of thanksgiving at St. Margaret’s Church, Westminster. By that evening, however, Lloyd George’s natural political instincts returned when he had supper with two key supporters, Churchill and Frederick Edwin Smith (later Lord Birkenhead), to discuss the forthcoming election campaign, and the plans to try the former German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, for war crimes. The Coalition won a landslide victory in the 1918 election – the first in which most British men and some women could vote.

Lloyd George’s post-war Coalition lasted, precariously towards the end, for almost four years. The nature of coalition politics and Lloyd George’s own preference for highly personal summit diplomacy or ‘sofa government’, by-passing Cabinet and Commons, meant that key episodes of high politics took place within Number 10. This is best illustrated through two areas of policy that were particularly important and controversial: industrial relations and Ireland.

In this period, there were constant strikes and threats of strikes from major national unions in energy supply and transport. On 20 February 1919, there was a fateful meeting with the Trades Union Congress at Number 10, when a national mineworkers’ strike was being threatened. Bob Smillie, the miners’ president, later recalled Lloyd George having insisted that the unions were threatening a confrontation with the whole of the country. ‘I feel bound to tell you that in our opinion we are at your mercy…. But have you weighed the consequences?’ The unions, he declared, would then have to take on the entire functions of government. Smillie ruefully recalled, ‘From that moment we were beaten…. and we knew we were’. Discussions with other key union leaders continued throughout 1920 and 1921. And some remarkable episodes took place, notably during the concluding discussions to end a national railwaymen’s strike in October 1919 when James O’Grady, a key union leader, led lusty singing of the ‘Red Flag’ just outside the Cabinet Room. These meetings were Lloyd George’s more frugal version of Harold Wilson’s ‘beer and sandwiches at Number 10’. Indeed in later years, many union leaders looked back with some nostalgia to the easy access to the centre of government they had experienced under Lloyd George.

In relation to Ireland, by the summer of 1921, Lloyd George had belatedly moved away from the bloody violence of ‘retaliation’ against Republicans, made notorious by the Black and Tans, to his preferred mode of high diplomacy. He held a series of talks with the Sinn Fein leader, Eamon De Valera, at Downing Street in July 1921, at which key issues in Ireland’s proposed new relationship with the UK, were discussed. Lloyd George, who made a point of speaking in Welsh to his Secretary, Thomas Jones, in the presence of De Valera, successfully argued that neither in Welsh nor in Irish did a word exist for ‘republic’. Then decisive meetings of ministers with Sinn Fein delegates (excluding de Valera) took place between 29 November and 5 December 1921. These were tough negotiations about Ireland’s relationship to the British Empire. Lloyd George had talks with two key Irish negotiators, Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith, promising to set up a Boundary Commission. Late on 5 December, Lloyd George melodramatically brandished two alternative telegrams to send to the British authorities in Dublin. Would it be peace or war? This tactic, perhaps masterly bluff, succeeded. After some further tense, private talks, the five Sinn Fein negotiators accepted the British government’s terms for the creation of the Irish Free State. For the first time, the two sides walked around the table British Ministers shook hands with those Lloyd George had called murderers. The outcome was sombre: civil war in Ireland, but the Irish Free State (later a Republic) was here to stay. Lloyd George could claim that where Pitt, Peel and Gladstone had failed, he had found an answer to the ‘Irish Question’.

The later stages of the history of the Coalition at No. 10 were less dignified. There was much tactical manoeuvring with journalists (Lloyd George specialised in ‘spin’), and cynical discussions with businessmen keen on knighthoods or peerages who might finance both parties in the government. ‘Cash for peerages’ already had a long ancestry, going back to Walpole’s era, but Lloyd George spent more of it. On 19 October 1922, after his belligerent handling of the threat of war with Turkey, the Unionist backbenchers (the origins of today’s Conservative 1922 committee) voted down the Coalition government. Lloyd George was out of office after 17 years in government. He reacted cheerfully, entertaining the Downing Street staff with a charade of his returning at the head of a deputation of Welsh MPs. But his power had gone forever. His regime was followed by a return to orthodox party government after the bewildering experiments of coalition. But he left a powerful legacy, of Number 10 as a unique arena for a pioneering experiment in supra-party government.

Copyright Kenneth O Morgan. This article was produced as part of the No10 Guest Historian series, coordinated by History & Policy.


Notas

1. Sidebar: Other Crown Chartered Companies

The British East India Company also spawned the London Company, which was chartered in 1606 by King James I, to establish the Virginia Plantation on a communistic basis and the Plymouth Colony (1621). In 1606, he also chartered the Virginia Company, a joint stock corporation made up of a group of London entrepreneurs, charged with establishing Jamestown, in the Chesapeake region of North America known as Virginia. It had the authority to appoint the Council of Virginia, the Governor, and other officials and also had the responsibility to provide settlers, supplies, and ships for the venture. Although initially favorable, as the mortality rate rose, and the prospect for profit faded, the support for it began to decline. They resorted to lotteries, searching for gold, and silkworm production to increase their chances of making a profit. Although Great Britain controlled the colony through this company, because of the Indian Massacre of 1622, the Charter was revoked in 1624, and Virginia became a Crown colony.

Editor's Notes:

E1. Zionist leader Israel Cohen (1879-1961) was too young to have been at the organizational meeting of the Fabian Society in 1883.


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